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Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Orienteering (South Pacific Division)

Orienteering (South Pacific Division)
South Pacific Division
Ability Stage 2 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
12 months of Introduction: 2001

Supply: South Pacific Division (SPD) Honour
Word: There have been quite a few variations of this honour. The next necessities have been developed at the side of Orienteering Queensland and trialled over the previous few years. This honour is to not be confused with the Common Convention Orienteering Honour which has similarities to the SPD Map & Compass Honour

Part 1 – Idea[edit]

1.1 What’s Orienteering?[edit]

An orienteer at a management level

Orienteering is an Worldwide sport originating in Sweden in 1918 invented by Main Ernst Killander.
The game entails travelling via a course of controls the place a card is stamped or a query is answered earlier than shifting on to the following management and on to the end. The winner is the particular person to have the shortest time attending to all controls. One other model is a scored occasion the place the competitor chooses which controls to go to in a set time. On this occasion the controls have totally different rating values and factors are deducted for being over time.
In some competitions there are multiday occasions and have capacity recognised programs. White Programs for the newbie, Yellow Programs, Orange Programs, Purple Programs for the extra skilled.
Map and compass expertise are a bonus for rookies and for skilled opponents a should.
Orienteering Golf equipment often have an Occasion every month. Occasions can embody the next modes of transportation: working, mountain biking, canoeing, snow snowboarding, night time occasions, reminiscence occasions.

1.2 Title three disciplines of Orienteering[edit]

This could say, “Title the 4 disciplines of Orienteering as accepted by the Worldwide Orienteering Federation (IOF)

1. Foot Orienteering.

2. Mountain Bike Orienteering

3. Ski Orienteering

4. Path Orienteering

Foot Orienteering would come with normal membership occasions, competitors occasions, day occasions, multiday occasions, Rogaine, night time occasions.

Mountain Bike much like foot however on a mountain bike.

Ski additionally related however on snow with skis.

Path Orienteering is for each in a position and other people with bodily disabilities competing collectively on a fair taking part in subject. On trails accessible to wheelchairs the particular person with the map reaches a call space a long way from the management, there a selection must be made between a number of controls within the space, one being the proper one. The controls should not truly visited. Then on to the following website. The purpose isn’t within the general velocity however in accuracy of selecting the proper management. In competitions there are time constraints on the determination space and the velocity of the selection is rewarded with factors.

There are others that aren’t supported by the IOF however are of an area or world space jurisdiction.

Orienteering disciplines embody Mountain Bike, Wheelchair, Snow Snowboarding, Parks and Road, Horseback, Scuba, Cross-Nation, and canoeing.

Most orienteering occasions are normal cross-country ones the place the controls should be visited within the specified order. These vary from native membership occasions the place there might solely be 4 programs provided to Nationwide Commonplace Occasions which have 5 to eight programs.
There’ll typically be a Blue (Very Straightforward), Inexperienced (Straightforward), Orange (Average) and Purple (Arduous) course provided.(In New Zealand: White (very straightforward), Yellow (Straightforward), Orange (Average), Quick Purple (Arduous), Lengthy Purple (Arduous). In some of these competitors, orienteers might enter any normal after all they want. Women and men compete on the identical programs no matter their age.In Provincial and Nationwide Competitions opponents are break up to gender and age (and competitve or novice) although they might be doing the identical course.
Different varieties of occasions embody:

Rating – opponents are required to seek out as many controls as doable in a given time – often 30 or 60 minutes – in no set order. Various factors are sometimes allotted for every management. These of the toughest technical normal have the very best factors.

Scatter – opponents have to seek out the entire controls however might get them in any order

Evening – all of the above occasions could be completed at night time to offer it a brand new dimension and additional issue. To ease the issue slightly, torches are required and reflective tape is fastened to the management flag on all sides in order that it will likely be seen at any route whin torch gentle hits reflective tape.

1.3 Listing the gadgets required for Orienteering utilizing the next headings[edit]

a. Clothes

Clothes necessities must be based mostly on weather conditions on the time of the occasion.
For rookies, put on comfy out of doors garments. Shorts are OK, however lengthy pants will defend the legs when going via the bush or lengthy grass.
Eager orienteers compete in vibrant ‘O fits’ fabricated from light-weight, breathable nylon or lycra. These present safety towards vegetation in addition to being comfy to put on in hotter circumstances. Many orienteers additionally use gaiters to guard their legs towards scratches and bruising.

b. Footwear

For rookies, sturdy footwear reminiscent of joggers is ample. There’s all kinds of particular orienteering sneakers obtainable however many individuals discover that sneakers with rubber studs, designed for grass sports activities reminiscent of hockey, are additionally fairly appropriate. Trainers typically don’t present adequate ankle safety in tough terrain.

c. Tools

An orienteering compass – these could also be bought from most out of doors shops or borrowed on the occasion

A map (equipped by the organisers)

A plastic bag to guard your map

A hat and put on sunscreen particularly whether it is prone to be scorching

A whistle to draw consideration if injured or misplaced

A watch

Water to drink, earlier than and after the competitors

Fundamental First Help equipment

1.4 Describe the essential guidelines and security issues for Orienteering[edit]

Orienteering is a person sport with the emphasis being on self reliance and making your individual choices. While you’re studying in regards to the sport, you could go together with a household group or different individuals however as you achieve in expertise and want to be aggressive, you want to have the ability to full a course by yourself. Youthful kids shouldn’t be allowed out on a course with out an grownup till they’ve demonstrated a capability to efficiently navigate on their very own.
On most programs, you’re required to go to the controls within the designated order. You shouldn’t observe, speak to or intervene with different opponents except you’re fully misplaced and unable to relocate your self by yourself. Motion of or eradicating controls will trigger others to get misplaced and is frowned upon fairly sternly.

Orienteers ought to return to the Meeting Space inside Three hours of beginning their course, even when they haven’t accomplished it, in any other case a search will likely be mounted.


It is suggested to hold a whistle with you when competing to draw consideration if misplaced or injured. The emergency sign is six blasts at ten second intervals, repeated each two minutes. Anybody listening to this should come to your help.

A Security Bearing is given at the beginning. It’s the route to go if misplaced.
Earlier than beginning, examine to see if water is offered and at which controls on the programs. On scorching days, carry some water in order to have lots to drink each earlier than and after competing.

It is suggested to hold a watch to know the way a lot time has elapsed since beginning.
As with all sports activities, accidents can happen. Ankle sprains, cuts and scratches are the most typical issues. Many orienteers strap their ankles with strapping tape to assist forestall accidents. A First Help equipment is obtainable on the registration space however it’s prompt that you just additionally deliver a easy first assist equipment with you to the occasion.

In Australia, snakes are hardly ever encountered throughout orienteering occasions as they are usually scared away by the noise of opponents shifting via the bush. Nonetheless, if bitten, keep nonetheless and attempt to immobilise the affected limb and apply a stress bandage from a few of your clothes. Blow your whistle to draw the eye of different orienteers.

1.5 Clarify the totally different ranges of issue for Orienteering programs[edit]

Word. In some nations the colors of programs do differ.

In Queesnland (and most different States) Australia.

Blue (Very Straightforward): The newbie’s programs are often about 1–2 km in size and observe simply identifiable, linear options reminiscent of tracks and fences.Controls are on the monitor or at junctions of tracks or options.

Inexperienced (Straightforward): These programs encourages some easy, off-track route decisions. Controls could also be as much as 5 metres from the monitor or characteristic.

Orange (Average): These programs require a reasonable normal of navigation. Controls could also be as much as 10 metres from the monitor or characteristic.

Purple (Arduous: These programs are probably the most technically tough. They differ in size to swimsuit age, requirements of health and sort of terrain. In quick open forest, the longest Purple Course could also be as much as 15 km lengthy whereas the shortest one could also be 2 – 3 km in size. Course distances are set to attain a sure profitable time so will differ relying on the kind of terrain. Even for very match younger orienteers, it’s uncommon for them to attain a kilometre price higher than 5 minutes per kilometre in most terrain. Controls could be anyplace.

In New Zealand.

White (very straightforward). All controls will likely be on the trail/ monitor at junctions or different options.

Yellow (straightforward). Some controls at junctions of tracks others about 6m from monitor.

Orange (reasonable). Most controls as much as 15m from a marked monitor or handrail.

Quick Purple (arduous). All controls anyplace (often about 12 controls, 2.5 km in size)

Lengthy Purple (more durable). All controls anyplace (often about 16 controls, could be 4 km size)

In some elements of the UK golf equipment produce other course colors.

The Devon membership:

White (very straightforward), Yellow, Orange, Purple, Mild Inexperienced, Inexperienced, Blue, Brown (hardest)

So if at one other district or nation it is going to pay to take a look at what the programs truly are.

1.6 Clarify what to do on a typical Orienteering Course[edit]

NB. The target of this requirement is to offer contributors a fundamental understanding of what’s anticipated on a typical orienteering course. It’s a precursor to the true factor. It offers contributors an perception into the relevance of map-reading expertise and so on. There are helpful hints.

Management descriptions
After deciding which course to do, choose a management description for that course. This lists the details about the controls you need to go to (ie. an outline of the characteristic you’re searching for in addition to the quantity on the management flag that marks that characteristic). For the Blue (Very Straightforward), Inexperienced (Straightforward) and Orange (Average) programs, these descriptions will likely be written in English however for the Purple programs, worldwide symbols are used.

You additionally want to finish a management card. On the reverse aspect is a collection of packing containers comparable to the controls you’ll go to. These packing containers are used to report the management websites you’ve got visited. The cardboard additionally gives info for the occasion organiser, reminiscent of your begin and end time, in order that your elapsed time could also be calculated. You will need to full each sections of this card because the tear off slip on the backside allows the organiser to examine that every one opponents have returned safely. Fill in all the data you can on the cardboard, particularly your title and cellphone quantity and the course you’re doing.

The Begin:
The beginning of the occasion could also be a long way from the registration space, so earlier than you set off, examine that you’ve:

Your map and a plastic bag to guard it.

The management description record.

Your management card.

A compass.

A whistle for security.

A watch to examine the time.

The path to the beginning will likely be indicated by indicators or streamers.
Initially, wait behind the signal indicating your course for the beginning official to allocate you a begin time and write it in your management card. Opponents doing the identical course are separated by at the very least two minutes at the beginning to minimise following. While you’re studying in regards to the sport, you could go round a course with a pal or relations if you want.

As soon as the starter calls out the beginning time or the clock sounds its lengthy “beep”, transfer to the grasp maps and replica your course rigorously onto your clean map. In main competitions reminiscent of a Badge Occasion or State Championships, a pre-marked and bagged map will likely be offered for every competitor.

On the grasp map, a crimson triangle marks the positions of the Begin of the course. The place of every management is depicted by a crimson circle and the end is marked by a double circle.

The numbers beside every management point out the order wherein they’re to be taken and correspond to the management description record for that course.
On the course:

After you have marked up the course onto your map, go away the Begin space and resolve easy methods to navigate to your first management.
Management websites are marked by orange and white, triangular markers, known as flags – see the image in Requirement 1. These are sometimes hung from bushes and bushes, typically as much as 1m off the bottom. The management quantity could also be discovered on the aspect of those flags. In main competitions, the flags could also be hung from steel stands, wherein case the management quantity will likely be discovered on the aspect of the stand.

Flags have plastic punches connected to them that are used to mark the related field on the management card. Every flag has a special patterned punch and that is used to point that you’ve visited the proper management website. When stands are used, the punch is discovered on the highest of the stand. You need to go to the controls of their listed order.
Orientate your map utilizing linear options or your compass in order that it’s lined up along with your route of journey and the options on the bottom. Attempt to match map options with what you see round you and vice versa.
Close to controls, seems for floor options that match these in your map slightly than simply looking for the orienteering flag. Pay attention to the gap you’re travelling.

At a management:

Word: For extra particulars on Controls, see the next Requirement.
If you get to the management, examine that the characteristic and code quantity on the management flag (or stand) match your management description record. If you’re positive it’s the management in your course, use the punch to mark the corresponding numbered sq. in your management card.
Transfer a brief distance away from the management website and plan your path to the following management.

If you’re unsure the place you’re:

First, attempt to relocate your self.

Use apparent, linear options reminiscent of tracks, fences or creeks if obtainable, or return to your earlier management.

In the event you suppose you’re fully misplaced and are unable to seek out the place you’re on the map, ask one other orienteer for assist or look ahead to help at any management you discover. Somebody will accumulate the controls after the course closure time and can have the ability to take you again to the meeting space.

In the event you observe the security bearing given at the beginning, you could possibly get again to the meeting space by yourself.

If all else fails, or in case you are injured, keep nonetheless and blow your whistle.
The emergency sign is six blasts at ten second intervals, repeated each two minutes. Anybody listening to this should come to your help.

On the end:

As you go the End banner, your time will likely be recorded and written in your management card which is handed to the end officers. The cardboard will then be checked to see that every one the controls in your course have been visited.

Even you probably have not accomplished your course, you have to report back to the End space in order that the occasion organiser is aware of that you’ve returned safely. It’s best to make sure that you come no later than Three hours after you began or a search will likely be mounted.

A useful technique to make use of when on the course.
Cease (Purple): If you end up close to the following management cease have an excellent go searching examine the map see the place you need to go instantly after the management.

Warning (Orange): Method the management tactfully examine that the quantity is appropriate make little noise or marks on floor.

Go (Inexperienced): No want to hold round and provides the controls place away to a different searcher, and also you already know the place to go subsequent so go man go!!

1.7 Clarify the symbols used on a typical Orienteering map[edit]

The orienteering map

An orienteering map is a specifically produced topographic map and, because it reveals lots of element, permits for exact bush navigation. Such maps depict pure options reminiscent of contours, watercourses, rock element and vegetation in addition to constructed options reminiscent of roads, buildings and energy traces.
Most orienteering maps are produced at a scale of 1:15,000 (i.e. 1 cm on the map equals 150m on the bottom) though in detailed areas the size is usually 1:10,000. For park and college maps of small areas, the size could also be even bigger eg. 1:5,000 enabling lots of element to be proven.
Many of the maps produced for orienteering are printed in color, permitting a wide range of options to be clearly proven. The map displayed overleaf is an instance of a typical orienteering map.
Technical symbols

Magnetic north line, and different symbols.

Course begins on the triangle and ends on the double circle image

Overprinting symbols
The course is printed in purple color. It consists of symbols for begin, management factors, management numbers, traces between management factors, and end. Further info might also be proven, reminiscent of harmful space, forbidden route, first assist put up, and refreshment level.

For the vegetation, the colors on the map point out how ‘runnable’ the terrain is from an orienteering perspective.

White sections depict typically open bushland;

Inexperienced areas present vegetation with the darker shades indicating very thick areas;

Yellow areas point out extra open floor the place working is simpler;

Black is for tracks, fences, powerlines and buildings however can be used for rock options reminiscent of boulders and cliffs; Additionally black parralel traces might point out out of bounds areas

Gray represents areas of open rock, usually present in granite nation

Blue is for water options reminiscent of creeks, dams and marshes (though these could also be dry, relying on the season);

Brown is used for contour traces which be part of factors of equal peak however can be used to depict earth options reminiscent of ditches, earth banks and knolls.

Within the margin of the map is a scale bar from which you’ll be able to measure distances on the map. The legend reveals the symbols used for the assorted options on the map.

The traces with arrows on the highest of the map present the magnetic north. Orienteering maps are all the time produced with the highest of the map aligned to magnetic north.

1.eight Title the elements of a typical compass used for Orienteering[edit]

The Silva compass is an excellent one to make use of on map work. It has a plastic see via base. To get an excellent image with a label of what every half is known as try google photos.
Some opponents make a small compass that’s connected to the thumb.

  1. Scales. Inches and mm
  2. Clear base plate
  3. North on dial
  4. Magnetic needle north finish
  5. Liquid filed housing with graduated dial and orienting line
  6. Route of journey arrow
  7. Magnifying lens
  8. Index pointer (for setting bearings and studying
  9. Orienting arrow
  10. Dial graduations 360 deg

1.9 Show easy methods to orientate a map utilizing land options and a compass[edit]

All Orienteering maps have magnetic grid traces. Line up the compass magnetic needle to parallel the magnetic grid traces.

1.10 Present your data of the next[edit]

a. Land formations and contour traces

There are extra formations you can acknowledge with time and expertise.

The map symbols could be divided into a number of teams: Land kinds, rock and boulders, water and marsh, vegetation, man-made options, technical symbols, and overprinting symbols. The symbols used must be defined in a separate legend part.

Land kinds

Land kinds are contours, slope traces, contour values, earth financial institution, knoll, melancholy, small melancholy, pit, damaged floor, and particular land type options. These symbols are drawn with brown color. The contour interval is often 5 m however could be much less.

Rock and boulders

This group covers cliffs, boulders, boulder fields and clusters, and stony or sandy floor. Black coloration is used for these symbols.

Water and marsh

Lakes, ponds, waterholes, rivers, water channels, marshes, wells. The symbols are drawn with blue coloration.


Vegetation: White coloration is forest, yellow is open space, and inexperienced signifies decreased runability.

Inexperienced and yellow colours are used to point runability. White is woody space with good runability. Yellow coloration reveals open space, whereas the inexperienced coloration represents density of the forest and of the undervegetation. Darker inexperienced means decrease runability, scaling from straightforward working (white), to sluggish working, tough, very tough, and impassable. Inexperienced vertical stripes are used for space with dense undergrowth (sluggish or tough working) however in any other case good visibility. Cultivated land (usually prohibited space resulting from rising crops) is proven with black dots on yellow background.

Man-made options

Man-made options are roads, tracks, paths, bridges, railway, powerlines, stone partitions, fences, buildings, and so on. Drawn with black coloration.

Contour traces are traces of the identical altitude and could be 2.5 m aside, so small variations in land kinds are straightforward to identify. These traces additionally give a good suggestion of the form of the land you’re to journey via and this may increasingly alter the road of journey option to get to the following management.

Contour traces present these options
Knoll, small knoll, melancholy, small gap, small melancholy, earth financial institution, Re-entrant, hill, pond, rocks and boulders.

b. The dimensions used on Orienteering maps

The map scale is generally 1:7500, however different scales are additionally produced for varied functions. 1:15000 implies that one mm on the map represents 15000 mm on the bottom which equates to 1mm on the map equalling 15 metres on the bottom

c. Handrails. Listing 4 doable handrails you would observe.

These are a necessary a part of any route. It’s value going a bit out of your technique to observe them for fundamental and intermediate stage orienteering. They are often tracks, fringe of vegetation, mapped fences, streams, clearings and so on. You possibly can hyperlink level options collectively to make a line.




Roads / tracks

Energy traces

d. The usage of Assault Factors

Massive or apparent options close to management

Most secure model is the crossing of two handrail options
superior instance is a particular formed knoll in amongst many knolls.

Superior approach might use 2 or extra assault factors e.g. an enormous knoll about 1-200m from management, then a re-entrant on the aspect of the knoll, then the pit that’s the management characteristic.

e. Aiming Off

It is a strategy of purposely going of the compass bearing realizing that you’re heading for a fence, path, small monitor. For instance you aren’t following a monitor however although straightforward run in a position open forest your subsequent management is 250 m away on a 90 deg bearing alongside a fence line. To avoid wasting time to find the management you purposely select to go barely to the left of the bearing so you realize when you get to the fence line the management must be alongside the fence a bit to your proper. With out ”aiming off” should you caught to the bearing and arrived on the fence and you weren’t correct sufficient you wouldn’t know if the management was to the left or to the precise.

1.11 Full a theoretical orienteering train[edit]

A great train for a bunch is to discover a fairly flat space of floor. Mark the beginning spot. Put together to stroll on a 180 deg bearing get certainly one of your group to stroll 20 steps on the bearing the compass holder cab appropriate his stroll then the remainder of the group joins him, swap rolls and proceed for one more 20 steps. Repeat this Three extra instances. Subsequent the group walks 10 steps on a 90 deg bearing. Put together to stroll on a 360 deg bearing and go in levels as earlier than. After the 5 levels discover how shut you’re to the beginning mark. The group must be 20 steps away from the mark and it must be on a bearing of 270 deg. One other thrilling model of that is to have barely sloping floor and do it at night time with candles or torches.

Part 2 – Sensible[edit]

2.1 (12)Discover your individual tempo rely[edit]

Stroll for 500m counting how might steps you’ve got taken. Now you know the way many paces it takes to journey 500m. From this you possibly can actually precisely measure distance you should journey on a map to the truth of strolling a path so you realize the place you’re and the way shut you’re to the following management or monitor junction flip off.

2.2 (13)Present easy methods to discover the route of journey (setting a compass bearing)[edit]

Setting compass to a bearing

When the needle is aligned with and superimposed over the outlined orienting arrow on the underside of the capsule, the diploma determine on the compass ring on the direction-of-travel (DOT) indicator offers the magnetic bearing to the goal (mountain).

2.3 (14)Full every of the next programs at the very least as soon as[edit]

Within the authentic honour necessities of a few years in the past within the sensible a part of this honour one needed to do: a theoretical train which is in one other requirement , a standard course, a scored course, an evening occasion. Within the newest model SPD 2013 a pair extra programs have been added. For my part should you can obtain an orange course efficiently a few instances or a inexperienced (yellow) course and an orange course plus the night time occasion there must be no purpose to do a blue (white) course.

Please observe that in some nations the colors of those programs might differ.

a. Blue (Very Straightforward) Course.

b. Inexperienced (Straightforward) Course.

c. Orange (Average) Course

d. Scored Occasion.

Opponents go to as many controls as doable inside a time restrict. There’s often a mass begin (slightly than staggered), with a time restrict. Controls might have totally different level values relying on issue and there’s a level penalty for every minute late. The competitor with probably the most factors is the winner. The massive-scale, endurance-style model of a Rating-O is named a rogaine, competed by groups in occasions lasting (typically) 24 hours. A really giant space is used for competitors, and the map scale is smaller. The format originated in Australia. The time period ROGAINE is usually stated to face for Rugged Out of doors Group Exercise Involving Navigation and Endurance; that is basically a backronym, because the title truly originates from the names of Rod, Gail and Neil Phillips, who have been amongst Australian Rogaining’s first contributors.

e. Evening Course.

Plenty of enjoyable. Take an excellent torch hand-held or a head lamp. Some purists don’t such as you having an actual highly effective torch. For the primary time select a better course than that you’d usually do within the day time.

Word: Those that like a problem and who want to enhance their Orienteering expertise are inspired to do a Purple (Arduous) Course. This isn’t required for this stage of Orienteering.

Discover a membership near you. Most have their programmes on a website online. Pay the small charge to compete. This pays to your map and helps the membership cowl working prices. Compasses can typically be borrowed from the membership. Have numerous enjoyable. Be at liberty to ask the organizers numerous useful questions. Often the membership will ship you a month-to-month e-newsletter with the outcomes of the programs. It is a low cost household exercise. You don’t want any particular clothes, except you get extra skilled and enter numerous nationwide competitions

2.4 (15)Put together a ‘Room Orienteering Map’ and run an occasion based mostly on this map[edit]

Concerning the Writer[edit]


The contribution of supplies and recommendation from Orienteering Queensland is gratefully acknowledged; specifically that from Liz Bourne & Eric Andrews. (From the SPD Honours sources). These helped in a few of the complete solutions.

Hello from New Zealand

Geoff Harvey labored for 13 years promoting electrical and plumbing supplies to tradespeople. For a yr I used to be primarily in command of {the electrical} gross sales counter and had some management of ordering inventory. For quite a few months I stuffed in as the corporate electrical gross sales rep someday every week the place I might journey to Te Anau and Manapouri. The corporate restructured a number of instances and I had a couple of too many bosses and I needed to go away. With out regular employment with my spouse we did slightly inside portray in a number of houses and a few medical doctors premises. I then moved on to travelling 18 km to Winton to work on a church member’s farm typically in his timber mill or stooking oats and chaff reducing. He was beginning up a brand new retail enterprise so I used to be concerned in shifting outdated ‘garbage’ from his outdated shed to storage. Doing Three section electrical wiring up of motors and so on. Builders assistant within the constructing of his new dwelling. About this time I took on driving a college bus for our church college after which doing normal upkeep and coal fired boiler upkeep at a residential dwelling. 14 years later (2009) I drive the college bus for Southland Adventist Christian College and work at Bainfield Park Residential Care.

My household consists of me, my spouse, Four kids. Oldest son is in last yr at Canturbury College, subsequent son first yr at Canturbury College, daughters at highschool.

At present I’m the Director of the Invercargill Pathfinder Membership. Have been concerned in Pathfindering management in varied positions for about 30 years Acquired PLA badge. Love the outside: tramping, canoeing, music (piano keyboard and singing).
My church life is busy typically too busy. I’m an Elder with Youngsters’s Ministries obligations and the church Clerk.


Images Session One 1. What’s Orienteering

Photograph and diagram Session One 2. Clarify map options The Little E book of Orienteering Methods by Jean Cory-Wright NZOF Teaching Director March 2000.

Textual content parts Session Two 1. Land formations, Session Three 1. Aiming off, 2. Assault factors

Image of utilizing a compass Session Two 4.

Compiler Geoff Harvey
Invercargill Pathfinder Membership.

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