Answer-Keys 06.jpg

Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Shoe Repair

Shoe Restore
Normal Convention
Ability Stage 3 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
Yr of Introduction: 1928

1. Identify a minimum of 5 important components of a shoe and clarify their makes use of.[edit]


The underside of a shoe, which helps the wearer’s foot, is called the only real. It normally consists of a number of layers, and is normally a separate piece from the higher shoe (although not at all times, as within the case of wood footwear).


The insole is the inside backside of the shoe, which sits immediately beneath the foot. Many footwear have detachable and replaceable insoles, and additional insoles are sometimes added for consolation or well being causes. (To regulate the form, moisture, or odor of the shoe, for instance.)


The mid-sole is a layer located between the in-sole and the out-sole, present in some footwear. Usually it can present cushioning and form to the in-sole.

Footwear made out of actual crocodile pores and skin, in a conservation exhibit at Bristol Zoo, England


The outsole is the layer in direct contact with the bottom. The fabric of the outsole varies relying on the operate, dressiness, and high quality of the shoe, however is mostly very sturdy materials, because it experiences essentially the most stress. Dressier footwear have leather-based outsoles; informal or work-oriented footwear have outsoles manufactured from pure rubber or an artificial imitation. The outsole might comprise a single piece, or might comprise separate items of various supplies. Usually the heel of the only real is rubber for sturdiness and traction, whereas the entrance is leather-based for type. Specialised footwear will typically have distinct modifications on this design: athletic cleats have spikes embedded within the outsole to grip the bottom.


Some footwear have a particular raised heel; typically this can be a separate piece from the outsole and might be changed. Leather-based was used previously, and remains to be utilized in some efficiency tennis footwear, however more durable supplies are normally extra fascinating. Plastic, rubber, or polymer supplies are actually additionally used. Fortified cork is usually utilized in heels or soles so the footwear are light-weight.

Vamp, or higher[edit]

Any shoe additionally has an higher half that separates the foot from the air, and helps maintain the shoe onto the foot. Within the easiest instances, reminiscent of sandals or flip flops, this can be nothing quite a lot of straps for holding the only real in place beneath the foot. Closed footwear, reminiscent of boots, sneakers and most mens footwear, will normally have a extra complicated higher.


A shoelace is an extended piece of string or twine that maintain a shoe closed. Often it’s hooked up by being threaded by a sequence of small holes within the shoe, known as eyelets. To help this, many shoelaces are tipped with small strong plastic bits known as aglets.


In some footwear and boots the tongue is a flap-like, normally versatile, half that goes beneath the laces.

2. What’s the distinction between hand-turned soles, Goodyear welt soles, and McKay sewed soles? Which is the best to restore?[edit]

Hand-turned soles[edit]

One of these shoe is constructed inside-out utilizing a type known as a final. A final is a foot-shaped software, historically manufactured from wooden. After the uppers are made and stitched collectively, they’re faraway from the final, turned right-side-out, and the only real is hooked up. The only is of 1 piece – the topside of the only real serves because the insole, and the underside facet serves because the outsole.

Goodyear welt soles[edit]

In a shoe of this kind, the uppers, insole, and midsole are stitched to the outsole. That is essentially the most safe method to connect the only real. The insoles are constructed into the shoe quite than being inserted after the remainder of the shoe has been made. The higher is drawn over the only real and held briefly whereas a strip of leather-based (the welt) is stitched to the higher and internal sole. The only is hand-stitched by the welt to finish the method. This development permits a number of sole replacements, extending the lifetime of the footwear.

As a result of the stitching of the outsole is completed fully on the surface of the shoe, one of these sole is best to restore.

McKay sewed soles[edit]

Ten years after the invention of the stitching machine, Gordon McKay launched a tool for machine-stitching a shoe’s higher to its sole. In one of these sole, the insole is hooked up to the higher whereas it’s nonetheless on the final utilizing tacks that are clinched over. The outsole is then sewn to the meeting by McKay’s machine. The stitching seems on the within of the shoe, as do the tacks. One of these development was frequent for affordable, light-weight footwear.

Curved Needle Machine[edit]

The outsole is hooked up to the higher with a welt. The curve needle machine permits the soles to be stitched by the goodyear welt with out the going by the higher so the footwear might be resoled many instances with out stitching by the uppers.

3. Correctly wax the thread, and with two needles or waxed ends, mend a pair of footwear which have rips in them. Use the double-stitch technique of stitching.[edit]

Shoe restore is finest taught by an skilled cobbler. It isn’t actually doable to be taught this commerce by studying a e-book – it needs to be practiced, and to turn out to be proficient takes years. The most effective strategy for assembly this requirement (in addition to necessities Four and 5) is to go to a shoe restore store as described in requirement 8. Carry a pair of footwear which have rips in them so the cobbler can will let you observe on your individual footwear quite than on his buyer’s footwear.

Ripped footwear don’t essentially have tears within the canvas or leather-based, however might have a burst seam. Nearly any pair of “throw-away” footwear you continue to have in your closet will work for this. Relying on the ability you’ll be able to deliver to bear in your first try, chances are you’ll find yourself throwing them away anyhow. Keep in mind that this can be a studying course of, and your aim shouldn’t be essentially to get a wearable pair of footwear out of your effort, however quite, a working information of shoe restore methods. Should you fail on the left shoe, chances are you’ll succeed on the suitable. Otherwise you would possibly undergo multiple pair of footwear.

It could be doable to construct your Pathfinder group’s curiosity on this honor by exhibiting them some shoe restore movies.

4. Satisfactorily half-sole a pair of footwear by nailing the soles on. Make sure that the nails are of the correct size.[edit]

See necessities Three and eight for recommendation.

5. Match and fix a pair of rubber heels.[edit]

See necessities Three and eight for recommendation. Here is one other Youtube video from Upside Down Shoe Restore:

6. What sort of leather-based must be utilized in repairing the soles of footwear? How is such leather-based usually tanned?[edit]

Leather-based utilized in shoemaking is split into two classes: higher leather-based, and sole leather-based. Higher leather-based is used for making the uppers, and is thinner, softer, and extra pliable than sole leather-based. Sole leather-based is mostly made out of the conceal of a fully-grown cow, taken from the thicker components of the animal’s pores and skin. Higher leather-based is taken from calves, goats, and different smaller animals with thinner pores and skin.

Again when this honor was initially written, leather-based was normally tanned by soaking it in a shower with tree bark (normally hemlock or oak). An astringent acid would leach out of the bark, and this acid is what would convert an animal pores and skin into leather-based, in a course of often known as tanning.

Sole leather-based was most frequently tanned utilizing oak bark. Oak-tanned leather-based has a lightweight, creamy tan coloration. It’s each agency and versatile.

7. Specify a minimum of three elements that must be taken into consideration within the choice of footwear.[edit]

There are numerous elements to contemplate when choosing a pair of footwear, together with, match, consolation, operate, high quality, value, and even ethical issues. When contemplating any of those elements, it’s incumbent upon the Christian to observe good stewardship.

Match and Consolation[edit]

Probably an important issue to contemplate when choosing a shoe is that it suits correctly. Improperly fitted footwear may cause discomfort, soreness, and even damage. Footwear must be comfy. It’s irresponsible to sacrifice consolation for the sake of fashion, although there are exceptions to this (i.e., the shoe won’t be worn for very lengthy and the wearer has no different possibility, reminiscent of serving because the member of a marriage get together).

It is best to have your toes measured each time you purchase footwear if they’re nonetheless rising. Even after they cease rising, it is nonetheless a good suggestion to have them measured often, as their form might change. There are two parameters that specify the shoe measurement: size, and width.


Shoe measurement in the US and Canada is predicated on the size of the final, measured in inches, multiplied by Three and minus a relentless. This fixed differs for footwear supposed for males, girls and youngsters.

Ladies’s sizes are virtually at all times decided with the “frequent” scale, by which girls’s sizes are equal to males’s sizes plus 1.5 (for instance, a males’s 10.5 is a girls’s 12).

Within the much less in style scale, often known as the “customary” or “FIA” (Footwear Industries of America) scale, girls’s sizes are males’s sizes plus 1 (so a males’s 10.5 is a girls’s 11.5).

Youngsters’s sizes are equal to males’s sizes plus 12.33. Thus women’ and boys’ sizes don’t differ, though males’s and ladies’s do.

For the worldwide market, the ISO 9407 customary is used for specifying shoe size.


Some producers supply footwear of various width for a similar foot size. Such footwear are then additionally labelled in line with the width or girth of the widest a part of the foot (sometimes measured immediately behind the toes with the topic standing on each toes and carrying socks or hose).

Within the Mondopoint system, the shoe measurement label can state along with the size additionally the width of the imply foot for which the shoe is appropriate, each measured in millimetres.

A lot of different ad-hoc notations for width or girth are additionally used. Examples embrace (every beginning with the narrowest width):

  • AAAA, AAA, AA, A, B, C, D, E, EE, EEE, EEEE
  • 4A, 3A, 2A, A, B, C, D, E, 2E, 3E, 4E
  • N, R, W

None of those designations are formally standardized. The precise foot width for which these sizes are appropriate can fluctuate considerably between producers. The A-E width indicators utilized by some US and UK shoe producers are sometimes based mostly on the width of the foot, and customary step sizes are 1/Four inch (6 mm) or 3/16 inch (5 mm).


The subsequent consideration when choosing a shoe is the exercise to be carried out when carrying the shoe. You wouldn’t put on excessive heels on a backpacking journey, nor would you put on flip-flops to a marriage. Totally different footwear have completely different functions, although fortunately, some are multi-purpose. Here’s a listing of a few of the forms of footwear accessible:

  • Costume footwear
  • Informal footwear
  • Athletic footwear
  • Trainers
  • Climbing boots
  • Climbing footwear
  • Paddling footwear
  • Work boots
  • Metal-toed boots
  • Snow boots
  • Golf footwear
  • Bowling footwear
  • Slippers

High quality[edit]

In case your toes have stopped rising, it is smart to purchase the highest quality footwear that you may afford. Prime quality footwear won’t solely last more than low cost ones, they’re cheaper in the long term as a result of they won’t have to get replaced as typically. A low-quality shoe may also make your toes sore and even trigger damage by not offering correct arch or ankle assist.

In case you are shopping for footwear for an individual who’s rising shortly, you must nonetheless search a top quality shoe, however at this level the aim is match the anticipated lifetime of the shoe to the period of time it can match.


Value can be an important consideration. Some footwear are very costly, not due to their top quality, however due to the title hooked up to them. Although top quality footwear are normally dearer than low-quality footwear, this doesn’t imply that every one high-priced footwear are additionally high-quality.

Ethical issues[edit]

Within the late 1990’s a number of shoe producers discovered themselves embroiled in controversy after it was revealed that they had been exploiting sweatshop labor in third-world international locations. There are numerous individuals who boycott numerous firms due to such practices, and there are a lot of individuals who patronize firms that commit themselves to respecting human rights.

8. Spend a minimal of 5 hours observing shoe restore specialists at their work store.[edit]

It is best to have the ability to discover a shoe restore store within the Yellow Pages (or different enterprise listing) beneath “Shoe Restore.” You too can do this website by Vibram, a shoe restore provider.

Shoe restore retailers are sometimes family-owned companies, so the possibilities of talking to the proprietor while you enter the shop (or name on the cellphone) are fairly good. It might be higher to strategy the proprietor in individual quite than calling, as that provides you a greater alternative to current your self. Put on a category A uniform while you go there to ask permission to observe, and be prepared to elucidate what number of Pathfinders might be with you. Let the shop proprietor choose a time and date for the five-hour go to. The shop proprietor may be keen to instruct this honor, so it could be a good suggestion to make contact earlier than you get began.

Your go to to the work store might be alternative to satisfy necessities 3, 4, and 5, however you must in all probability deliver some footwear that want these repairs with you. The proprietor will definitely not need you experimenting on his buyer’s footwear! Provide to pay for any supplies you utilize when repairing your footwear.

9. Write or inform the examiners the correct strategies of cleansing and caring for footwear.[edit]

Hold your footwear trying their finest by utilizing a cedar shoe tree. These are foot-shaped blocks of cedar wooden that match contained in the shoe. Cedar absorbs moisture and salt which may harm your footwear. Clear footwear immediately after they turn out to be soiled. There are 4 fundamental steps in caring for easy leather-based footwear: clear, situation, polish, and weatherproof.


First you must lay some newspapers out in your work space and take away the laces from the footwear. Brush the dust off with a comfortable brush, after which apply saddle cleaning soap or leather-based cleaner to the shoe with a comfortable material (you should utilize a shoe shine material or an previous T-shirt). Work it in, after which begin to shine the shoe.


As soon as the shoe has been cleaned, you possibly can apply a conditioner. You should buy cleaners with conditioners in them, however you may get higher outcomes utilizing a separate conditioner. The conditioner is labored into the leather-based simply because the cleaner was, and it helps to moisturize the leather-based to forestall cracking. In dry climates, chances are you’ll must situation your footwear extra typically.


Most of us are conversant in the liquid shoe polish merchandise that are available a bottle with a brush constructed into the lid. These polishes work nicely sufficient, however the polish solely barely penetrates the floor of the leather-based and needs to be re-applied continuously. It’s higher to make use of a present paste, however finest to make use of a shoe cream. Whichever you select, you’ll have to match the colour of the product to the colour of the shoe. Take a look at in an not easily seen space to just remember to have coloration match. Apply shoe cream with a comfortable material and rub it in nicely. Then let it dry totally. As soon as dry, you possibly can go over it once more with a comfortable material to deliver out the shine.


In case you are extra serious about defending the footwear than in making them look good, you should utilize beeswax to weatherproof them. Beeswax will change the look of the shoe, however it’s most wonderful for holding the water out. This could be a good selection for work or mountain climbing boots. For costume footwear, you’ll want to use a spray-on product which works on invisibly. It’s going to defend your footwear from incidental contact with water, however you shouldn’t depend on these things for wading by puddles.


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