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Directing Technology/Purchase – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Analysis and Planning[edit]

Analysis and Planning within the following sections includes the preliminary analysis that’s required for buying expertise. It additionally includes the planning that’s required earlier than buying the expertise.

Researching Know-how Purchases[edit]

A District Know-how Coordinator is normally chargeable for buying the expertise used all through the varsity or district. Subsequently she or he ought to work with the tip customers to develop the specs for expertise to be bought. After basic specs have been developed in session with the tip customers, the Know-how Coordinator ought to get hold of present pricing from totally different suppliers or distributors. The costs needs to be in contrast via a aggressive bidding course of.

Buy Order/Buy Requisition
A purchase order order (P.O.) refers the Faculty District’s authorized and binding acceptance of a vendor’s provide. An everyday buy order incorporates the order date, identify of purchaser, contact individual, billing handle, delivery handle, identify of vendor, vendor’s handle, requested supply date, funds codes, specs in addition to citation reference numbers of explicit gadgets, and signature required from increased authority of the group. Specification refers an outline of a bodily or practical attributes of a provide or service. A citation refers a proposal from a contractor for a provide or service. Faculty districts usually buy gadgets in bulk via common P.O. Options are buy requisitions for small quantity, petty money for very small quantity of buy. P.O are time consuming and will incur extra overhead prices.
Finances Codes
One of the detailed and infrequently complicated features of buying is making use of funds codes. For each buy there have to be a funds code assigned to the merchandise. The funds codes set up a consistency in reporting and permit for accumulation of element at numerous ranges.1a For info on correct funds codes in line with the Pennsylvania Division of Training, please go to their Handbook of Accounting. For added details about budgeting on this e book, please consult with Chapter three on Funding and Budgeting.
Bidding Course of
If any United States group is putting an order that exceeds $10,000, then that buy has to undergo a bidding course of. In perspective of a college, bids should observe a mixture of native, state, and federal legal guidelines. Bids have to be publicly marketed for at the least three weeks. Sealed bids are publicly opened at a specified date and time. Many states or teams of faculties place bids for giant purchases. Each state/commonwealth in america has a authorities contract checklist from which colleges might buy with out bids. For instance, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has created the PEPPM Know-how Bidding and Buying Program. There’s additionally an analogous program within the Lehigh Valley space of Pennsylvania. There is a company that known as the “Lehigh Valley Affiliation of Impartial Schools.” The unbiased schools within the Lehigh Valley are capable of go to LVAIC and take part in a shared buying program. This program permits eligible schools to economize when buying costly tools.
The Request for Proposal (RFP) course of is being utilized by some college districts to ask potential distributors to submit bids for offering {hardware}, software program, and/or providers. To optimize this course of, you will need to be thorough and detailed within the RFP in order that distributors know the whole scope of the mission. Right here is an instance of an RFP template

Be taught Extra Concerning the Bidding Course of

Leasing Gear[edit]

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An alternate choice to buying new expertise is leasing. That is much like leasing a automotive, the place a college district pays a payment over time to make use of expertise with out proudly owning the tools. On the finish of the lease the {hardware} is returned or bought at a good market worth. There are positives and negatives related to leasing, and a call to lease or buy needs to be primarily based on a district’s monetary wants and expertise plan. Whether or not a lease is smart for a district additionally will depend on the contract negotiated between the leaser and the seller.

Positives and Negatives affiliate with leasing tailored from Chris Peters Leasing Computer systems and IT Gear for Your Nonprofit.

Positives Related to Leasing:

  • Budgeting– Many districts will difficulty bonds to fund the acquisition of recent {hardware} or software program. This takes time and requires giant sums of cash in a single fiscal 12 months. Lease agreements might be simpler to manage and approve than bond points.[1] When expertise is leased, the price of the tools is unfold out over the course of the lease and makes it simpler to stability an annual funds.
  • Money Move– Along with making it simpler to stability an annual funds, leasing additionally permits districts with smaller money flows to acquire expertise since much less cash is initially expended when leasing when in comparison with buying.
  • Up-to-Date Know-how– Leases typically final three years which implies districts can obtain new expertise after a brief time frame. This retains the {hardware} in colleges present and makes positive college students are utilizing the newest expertise. That is additionally necessary since expertise typically depreciates rapidly and has little worth on the finish of its life. Leasing permits districts to keep away from coping with the depreciation of out-dated {hardware}.
  • Disposal: When a chunk of expertise has reached the tip of its life, it must be disposed. This prices cash and makes use of district workers. When leasing, the tools is normally despatched again to the seller for disposal, saving the district money and time.
  • Upkeep and Set up– Lease agreements might be structured to incorporate upkeep, set up, software program, and different skilled providers.[1] This could save the district money and time in the long term.
  • Buy Packages– A lease might be structured to permit the acquisition of kit on the finish of the lease for truthful market worth of the {hardware}.[2]

Negatives Related to Leasing:

  • Lack of Management– When leasing tools you might not have full management over what might be achieved with the tools resembling updates and modifications.
  • Lease Settlement– Most leases are set for a sure variety of years that lock you in with a sure vendor and sure tools. If the wants of a district out of the blue change it is likely to be tough to vary the lease to satisfy wants. Some leases nonetheless will permit upgrading of kit earlier than the completion of the lease.
  • Further Cash– Whereas leasing spreads prices out over the course of a number of years, it might find yourself costing greater than buying tools since premiums are paid to the seller.
  • Know-how Situation– Relying on the lease situations, broken expertise won’t not be returnable on the finish of the lease and may price the district more money.
  • Finish-of-Lease Phrases– Relying on the wording of the lease settlement there might be charges and penalties on the conclusion of the lease. A expertise coordinator wants to pay attention to the construction of the lease to keep away from this type of drawback.[2]

If a district decides that leasing expertise will meet the wants of their program there are particular issues to contemplate when drawing up a lease settlement.

  • Time Body of Lease: Most leases will final for 3 years, nonetheless a district must resolve the most suitable choice for for his or her wants on a time-frame.
  • Gear and Software program: Identical to in buying tools, a expertise coordinator must analysis what tools will meet the wants of the directors, academics and college students.
  • Vendor: Because the vendor will likely be supplying tools and presumably software program, coaching, and repair, you will need to analysis distributors and select one with a great status.
  • Asset Monitoring: On the finish of a lease a district might want to return tools in good situation. This requires an appropriate monitoring and stock system to verify tools is in working order and situated the place it’s imagined to be.
  • Upkeep and Restore: The restore of leased tools might be dealt with by the district or the seller. The lease settlement might want to state who’s chargeable for ensuring tools is in working order and what repairs will likely be coated.
  • Know-how Refresh Choices: Some leases might be structured to permit upgrades earlier than the tip of the lease. Refresh choices can even permit the addition of extra tools or the return of out-dated tools.
  • Budgeting: Below present accounting principals leasing might be proven as working bills moderately than debt on a stability sheet. This needs to be mentioned with the monetary division of the varsity district.
  • Finish-of-Lease Phrases: The lease settlement might want to state what’s going to occur on the finish of the lease. One factor to incorporate on this part is whether or not there’s a buying choice for used {hardware}. It’s also useful to make clear the situation tools needs to be returned in.[1]

Planning Know-how Purchases[edit]

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Know-how purchases typically contain giant sums of cash and lengthy commitments by the varsity district. Earlier than something is bought, planning have to be achieved to make sure that the acquisition will meet the targets and expectations of a Know-how Plan and the establishment’s funds. So as to keep away from a expensive mistake, three areas of inquiry needs to be explored, as outlined within the sections under. As soon as accomplished, the solutions to those questions ought to give the Know-how Director confidence within the buy determination into consideration.

Perceive The Actual Want
Any expertise is a instrument to assist remedy an issue or attain a aim. Subsequently, the expertise director should get a transparent understanding of the true want earlier than looking for the technological resolution. What’s the drawback that’s being addressed, what targets are attempting to be reached, what pupil outcomes are attempting to be achieved?
  • Achieve a transparent understanding of the present situations, the duties being carried out, the forms of classes being taught. The expertise director ought to turn into very accustomed to every space that the expertise will contact, by sitting in on courses, observing workers utilizing their present techniques and interviewing present customers about their each day duties.
  • Discuss along with your customers (college, workers, or college students) to search out out what they plan on utilizing the expertise for. What do your customers need the expertise do to for them? What enhancements do they count on? Shopping for the mistaken piece of kit and discovering out that it does not do the specified job is a state of affairs that you’ll not wish to be in.
  • Suppose past your customers’ requests. Customers might have a restricted concept of the potential of expertise and their requests could also be restricted. As a expertise director, it’s a part of your job to come back to the desk with a wide range of options that your customers might not have even dreamed potential.
Contact Present Customers of the Know-how
It is rather necessary that you just contact different college districts which can be utilizing the expertise that your are contemplating for buy. This is likely one of the easiest methods to examine on the precise efficiency of the expertise, but it offers your among the most precious info.

  • Contact different college districts regionally or nationally to search out out if the expertise is performing as promised, and whether it is assembly expectation, so as to get a have a look at the unfiltered fact on its efficiency.
  • Contacting present customers can also be useful to find out what questions you won’t know to ask – a present consumer with expertise could possibly share beneficial insights that might be in any other case unknown at this stage within the determination making course of.
Test References of Potential Distributors
You will need to study as a lot as potential in regards to the vendor earlier than getting into right into a contract with them. Checking references of potential distributors to make sure that they are going to be reliable and dependable in offering the product/service at their budgeted costs is likely one of the greatest methods to do this.
  • Test with different college districts so see the place they purchased a chunk of kit from. Merchandise made by “Model X” are offered by many alternative distributors. Though the merchandise stands out as the identical, the assist offered by the distributors might be very totally different. Checking references is useful to find out how the distributors again up their merchandise.
  • These distributors will most probably assist the product in numerous methods. Some will merely promote you the product, present assist for 1 12 months, after which you might by no means have the ability to get in touch with them once more in regards to the order that you just already place. Others will set up the tools (if relevant and for a further payment), assist the tools for a number of years, and also will repair any issues which will have been their fault throughout set up. Speaking with others about their expertise with a person vendor, particularly in regards to the sorts of technical assist which can be obtainable, is usually a figuring out issue as to who to buy from.
Analysis the Software program/{Hardware}
Researching the software program and/or {hardware} is necessary so as to affirm that it’s what you count on and that it’s appropriate with present and future techniques.
  • When planning the acquisition of expertise tools, IT workers members first should do a primary stock of what will get replaced. Lots of occasions when expertise is being changed, different tools will get “rolled down” to exchange expertise that’s thought of outdated. For instance, as an instance that your college purchases new computer systems on a 4 12 months rotating schedule. Annually, through the summer season, workers members which have a pc that’s 4 years outdated will obtain a brand new laptop, however their outdated laptop could possibly be stored for another function or it may be donated to another non-profit group; simply make it possible for all earlier information has been erased and the one software program that’s put in on the pc is what was initially shipped with the pc.
  • When planning the acquisition of expertise tools, the brand new tools doesn’t should essentially be state-of-the-art until will probably be present process main use (e.g. a pc lab or one thing used all the time). Computer systems which can be going for use by college members, don’t essentially should be the very best tools. Going with a pc which will price between $800-$900 will most likely have the ability to meet the wants of the common consumer that will not be sitting at their desk all day. If the pc goes for use by administrative personnel, they are going to be at their laptop all day lengthy. This type of laptop ought to most likely price between $1,100-$1,200.

Receiving and Putting in[edit]

Receiving and Putting in covers the logistics of receiving expertise and putting in it into new or outdated buildings and lecture rooms.

Receiving Shipments of Know-how[edit]

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  1. The place will it’s delivered: The Know-how Coordinator ought to know the place shipments are being despatched. Packages may very well be delivered to district workplaces, warehouses, or to particular person colleges. Normally all shipments from native distributors are delivered on to the varsity or district workplaces or warehouses.
  2. Who will likely be there when it’s delivered: A dependable individual must obtain any particular person packages or giant shipments. Custodians could also be wanted to unload shipments as a result of the supply individual is probably not required to add giant shipments off their automobile. Normally packages are delivered together with a Packing Slip. Packing Slips have to be checked in opposition to Buy Orders to substantiate that every thing has been obtained. The chosen dependable individual must signal the packing slip to substantiate that every thing has been obtained. Massive shipments have to be secured throughout stock and till gadgets are put in. If a monitoring quantity has been offered, whereas an merchandise is being shipped, the merchandise needs to be tracked to watch the standing of a cargo. It’s the accountability of the Know-how Coordinator to confirm receipt and ahead one copy of the Buy Order to the Enterprise workplace.
Storage of Know-how
  1. Every college district normally possess a warehouse the place all of the shipments needs to be stored safely with the supervision of a supervisor and storekeeper. Warehouse Storekeepers below the steerage of supervisor take part within the receiving, unloading packages, storing computer systems and/or laptops and/or different tools, keep associated information, put together and keep experiences, keep warehouse and surrounding areas in a clear and orderly situations, ship gadgets to district areas, and many others.If any incorrect shipments, over-shipments, cancellations happens, storekeeper with the steerage of supervisor put together experiences, keep correct and audit-able information.
  2. In case your college district doesn’t have a warehouse the place shipments might be stored till these are obtained in every college, you could have to hire a storage facility and will have to rent extra safety to guard the funding.
Stock
  1. A Know-how Coordinator ought to know that somebody has to arrange and keep computerized fastened asset Stock information of the District’s provides, supplies and equipments. An correct stock is one thing that’s required by regulation and by insurance coverage corporations. A district huge stock system is normally used. Barcode scanners assist to report a mannequin and/or serial quantity.
  2. A correct stock contains the acquisition order quantity and all different related information hooked up to the order.
  3. A listing is crucial as a result of within the case of an emergency, there must be documented proof as to what was broken or stolen so worth might be positioned on these things. To trace or management the stock of computer systems, furnishings and equipments extra simply, college districts might have to purchase some software program. For a listing of obtainable items of software program for stock, go to IntelliTrack.
Fee
Suppliers or distributors ship bill or invoice to the acquisition part of the varsity district asking for cost. As soon as the gadgets are obtained below passable situation and all of the phrases and situations of the P.O. has been met, the acquisition division or part will difficulty the cost to the provider and the stock will likely be up to date. That is the place the acquisition cycle will likely be accomplished.

Putting in Know-how[edit]

When any type of set up of expertise tools is completed, somebody (both college or contracted electricians) want to put in the correct information and electrical strains. Doing this can make it possible for all your new tools can run correctly. When putting in information and electrical strains for brand new buildings, it’s higher to put in greater than what you have to. Putting in extra strains will permit individuals to rearrange the format of a room and thus not have to fret about the place gadgets can and can’t be positioned.

Putting in New Gear
  1. When putting in new tools or changing outdated tools, that will likely be in public areas, library or laptop lab, make it possible for desktop computer systems and screens are correctly secured. Utilizing desktop safety circumstances and monitor safety cables can stop individuals from stealing your funding.
  2. After correctly putting in particular person laptop workstations, technicians have to add the already created picture to every machine. When imaging a lab, the best manner to do that is to make use of what known as a multicast. This process saves community bandwidth and uploads the identical picture to a number of computer systems on the identical time. Symantec Ghost is essentially the most incessantly used imaging drawback used for this type of job.
  3. One other resolution that can be utilized as an alternative of, or with a picture, is a software that “freezes” your laptop the specified state. Because of this any time the pc is restarted to routinely reverts to the need configuration. This concept works very effectively as a result of if a pc is contaminated with a virus or different malicious software program, if you happen to restart the pc they go away. The foremost difficulty with any such setup is in sustaining updates to the working system and to the virus definitions. An instance of program that’s able to doing that is known as Deep Freeze.
Upgrading Gear
  1. When upgrading tools, the identical job which can be normally achieved when putting in new tools additionally must be accomplished.
  2. In extra, the varsity wants to find out what will likely be achieved with the tools that’s being upgraded. Many occasions, outdated tools can nonetheless be utilized by somebody use within the college. On this state of affairs, the pc is rolled right down to another person however all the outdated information has been erased and the pc is put into its unique state. Rolling down computer systems on this method can save a district a lot cash.
  3. If computer systems is not going to be rolled down, they’ll at all times be donated to church buildings or different non-profit organizations that may use this tools.

1a From: Handbook of Accounting and Monetary Reporting for Pennsylvania Public Faculties, http://www.pde.state.pa.us/school_acct/lib/school_acct/intro06-2006.pdf taken October 16, 2007.


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