French/Lessons/Print version - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

French/Lessons/Print version – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

French (Français, /fʁɑ̃sɛ/) is a Romance language spoken as a primary language by round 136 million individuals worldwide. A complete of 500 million communicate it as both a primary, second, or overseas language. Furthermore, some 200 million individuals study French as a overseas language. French talking communities are current in 56 international locations and territories. Most native audio system of the language dwell in France, the remainder dwell basically in Canada, notably the province of Quebec, with minorities within the Atlantic provinces, Ontario, and Western Canada, in addition to Belgium, Switzerland, Monaco, Luxembourg, and the U.S. states of Louisiana and Maine. Most second-language audio system of French dwell in Francophone Africa, arguably exceeding the variety of native audio system.

French is a descendant of the Latin language of the Roman Empire, as are nationwide languages akin to Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian and Catalan, and minority languages starting from Occitan to Neapolitan and plenty of extra. Its closest kin nevertheless are the opposite langues d’oïl and French-based creole languages. Its growth was additionally influenced by the native Celtic languages of Roman Gaul and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders.

It’s an official language in 29 international locations, plus the Vatican Metropolis, which kind what known as, in French, La Francophonie, the neighborhood of French-speaking international locations. It’s an official language of all United Nations companies and a lot of worldwide organizations. In response to the European Union, 129 million (or 26% of the Union’s complete inhabitants), in 27 member states communicate French, of which 65 million are native audio system and 69 million declare to talk French both as a second language or as a overseas language, making it the third most spoken second language within the Union, after English and German. Twenty-percent of non-Francophone Europeans know how you can communicate French, totaling roughly 145.6 million individuals.

As well as, from the 17th century to the mid 20th century, French served because the pre-eminent worldwide language of diplomacy and worldwide affairs in addition to a lingua franca among the many educated courses of Europe. The dominant place of French language has solely been overshadowed not too long ago by English, because the emergence of the USA as a significant energy.

On account of intensive colonial ambitions of France and Belgium, between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was launched to America, Africa, Polynesia, South-East Asia, and the Caribbean.

Historical past[edit]

Throughout the Roman occupation of Gaul, the Latin language was imposed on the natives. This Latin language (Traditional Latin) finally devolved into what is named Vulgar Latin, which was nonetheless similar to Latin. Over the centuries, resulting from Celtic and Germanic influences (notably the Franks), la langue d’oïl was developed. A dialect of la langue d’oïl often known as le francien was the language of the court docket, and thus grew to become the official language of what was to develop into the Kingdom of France, and later the Nation-State of France.

From medieval instances till the 19th century, French was the dominant language of diplomacy, tradition, administration, commerce and royal courts throughout Europe. Because of these elements, French was the lingua franca of this time interval.

French has influenced many languages world vast, together with English. It’s by way of French (or extra exactly Norman, a dialect of la langue d’oïl) that English will get about one third of its vocabulary.

Extent of the language[edit]

The French language on the earth      Areas the place French is the principle language      Areas the place it’s an official language      Areas the place it’s a second language      Areas the place it’s a minority language

In fashionable instances, French continues to be a major diplomatic language: it’s an official language of the United Nations, the Olympic Video games, and the European Union. It’s also the official language of 29 international locations and the Vatican Metropolis. Spoken in France, Belgium, Switzerland, Luxemburg, Lebanon, Tunisia, Morocco, Senegal, Haiti, the Ivory Coast, Madagascar, the Congo, Algeria, Niger, Mali, Burkina Faso, Togo, Gabon, the Seychelles, Burundi, Chad, Rwanda, Djibouti, Cameroon, Mauritius, and Canada (largely within the province of Québec the place it’s the major language, however it’s also utilized in different elements of the nation). All shopper product packages in Canada are required by regulation to have each English and French labels.

Recommendation on finding out French[edit]

See additionally: Easy methods to study a language

French tends to have a repute amongst English audio system as laborious to study. Whereas it’s true that it poses sure difficulties to native English-speakers, it might be famous that English can also be thought of ‘troublesome’ to study, and but we discovered it with out the good thing about already figuring out a language. The truth is, the French language could be discovered in solely 10 months, if just for the precise goal of passing a standardized check, such because the Check d’Analysis de Français. In response to the Widespread European Framework of Reference for Languages, so as to attain the extent of ‘Impartial Person’ (after finishing Degree B2), it’s essential to full 400 hours of efficient studying (so for those who examine Four hours per week, each single week of the 12 months, you would wish two years to realize it). Any approach you take a look at it, studying any new language requires a long-term dedication. Bear in mind, that like all talent, it requires a certain quantity of effort. And it’s possible that if you don’t observe your French commonly, you’ll start to overlook it. Attempt to make French observe part of your routine; even when it is not day by day, at the very least make it common.

Additionally keep in mind that you’re studying a brand new talent. Attempt to grasp the better ideas earlier than transferring on to the extra complicated. All of us have so as to add and subtract earlier than we are able to do calculus. French is an entire language; thus, whereas this guide can train you to learn and write in French, these are solely half of the talents that make up fluency. A written doc can not train a lot about listening to and talking French. You need to prepare on all of those expertise, and they’ll then reinforce each other.

The easiest method to study French is to go to France or one other French-speaking nation. This lets you begin with a clear slate, as infants do. Nonetheless, since most of us are unwilling or unable to take that step, the following best choice is immersion. In case you are critical about studying French, a interval of immersion (throughout which you reside in a Francophone tradition) is a good suggestion after you have some fundamental familiarity with the language. If you cannot journey to a French-speaking nation, then strive listening to French-language packages on the radio, TV, or the Web. Lease or purchase French-language films (many American and U.Okay. films have a French language possibility). Take note of pronunciation. Seize a French speaker you meet and speak to her or him in French. Hear, communicate, and observe. Learn French newspapers and magazines. Google’s information web page, which hyperlinks to French-language information tales, is a wonderful supply that can enrich your vocabulary.

Written versus fashionable spoken French[edit]

Whereas the French written language is very standardized, and hasn’t modified a lot in over 200 years, the identical can’t be mentioned of the spoken language. This guide, like all French coaching materials, is oriented in the direction of the written language. The talking examples are straight from the standardized written language. Should you have been to develop into an skilled on this French, you’ll most likely be fully confused if you arrive in a French talking nation. In contrast to the written language, the spoken language may be very dynamic. The French individuals wouldn’t readily perceive you, and you wouldn’t perceive them. You possibly can image in your thoughts, an individual studying English from a 200 12 months previous guide, and coming to your city and saying “Hast thou” or “Wherefore artwork thou.”

The explanation written French is harassed in studying (Colleges and Web programs), is which you can go from this standardized language to fashionable spoken French a lot simpler than English to spoken French, after which going backwards to studying written French.

A easy instance is: Je ne comprends pas (I do not perceive). For a enterprise individual (not desirous to sound too plebeian) this is able to be spoken as: Jeun comprends pas, with the Je ne joined collectively. However most individuals on the road simplify this even additional. The ne is deemed redundant and falls by the wayside, and the laborious Je sound is lowered to a sh sound: shcomprends pas. One other instance could be Il ne fait pas … (he/it doesn’t…) leading to y fay pa … (ee-fay-pah), or Il n’y a pas … changing into yapa … (yah-pah…).

French is a language that’s learn, spoken, and sung. Every has totally different guidelines. Lyric and Poetry have pronunciation guidelines which can be totally different than the written, and spoken French has no guidelines as compared. Studying written French is barely the 1st step, and fashionable spoken French is your step two. This guide is for studying written French.

What ought to I study first?[edit]

Many programs of language examine assume you’re going there for trip, and so start their classes with widespread survival phrases that folks use. There may be a few of that on this guide, however contemplate that “verbs” are what makes a language. There are six verbs in French that, when memorized, gives you a head begin when transferring on to studying sentences.

The excellence between a phrase and a sentence, is {that a} phrase doesn’t have a topic or verb. That is why they’re straightforward to study, and a predominant a part of trip kind books. You possibly can’t go fallacious with a phrase. In contrast to a phrase, a sentence is a grammatical unit. You have to nouns, pronouns, adjectives (phrases that modify nouns), adverbs (phrases that modify verbs and adjectives), and many others. A sentence features a topic (what/whom the sentence is about), and a predicate (phrases that inform us concerning the topic). There are additionally several types of sentences: declarative (statements), interrogative (questions), exclamative (exclamations), and commandative (instructions). The construction of sentences, and never simply phrases, should be studied and practiced so as to study a brand new language.

Most necessary, at starting ranges, is to get your French face on. This implies pronunciation is crucial. You do not need to should unlearn something if you get to the following degree. The textual pronunciation examples listed here are primarily based on the Worldwide Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and ought to be used to organize your thoughts. The IPA symbols are designed by scientists, and aren’t any match to listening to French individuals inside their very own surroundings. You will need to truly take heed to an actual French speaker at this stage. Use the instance voices contained within the guide, but additionally watch French media on the Web. You ought to be cautioned about French songs. It’s acceptable for artists to twist a phrase for type and for rhyme, they usually love to decorate endings. Additionally, you will discover that mutes are pronounced in lyric and poetry. It’s usually the case {that a} singer or poem recitation will say “ewnuh” for une and “veeuh” for vie. You might also observe, to forestall boredom, a lyric could also be “veeuh” on one verse, and “vee” on the following. Examples, as to why songs and poetry are added experiences in studying and having fun with the French language.

The start verbs are:

Simply as in English, you’ll use these as a base to create the fourteen (14) French tenses. Current, Future, Conditional, and many others. Don’t fret about tenses for this train. They’re problems that can take months and years to grasp. Usually, solely ten (10) tenses are used apart from superior ranges of French.

The above verbs should be mastered to even start. You would possibly assume the record is just too brief, so be at liberty so as to add verbs into your flash-card rotation.

The subsequent verb examples, which can be necessary to any language, are the motion kind verbs. When you can “have, know, can, and many others” you additionally have to “go, come, or keep” in lots of conversations. These verbs are thought of fundamental constructing blocks.

Once more, be at liberty so as to add others to your flash-card rotation.

That brings us to the “Huge Seven” French query phrases. These, just like the above will shortly develop into sophisticated as nicely. The next is clearly simplified, however your understanding at this degree, will shortly get you to the following degree.

/u/ (oo) The place est le taxi ? The place’s the taxi?
Quel (quels, quelle, quelles) /kɛl/ (kel) Which Quel est le problème ?, What’s the issue?
Qui /ki/ (kee) Who Qui a pris mon stylo ? Who took my pen?
Pourquoi /puʀ.kwa/ (poor-kwah) Why Pourquoi êtes-vous ici ? Why are you right here?
Quand /kɑ̃/ (kah(n)) When Quand je suis content material, je souris. After I’m blissful, I smile.
Remark /kɔ.mɑ̃/ (koh-mah(n)) How Remark allons-nous trouver des informations ? How will we discover some info?
Combien /kɔ̃bjɛ̃/ (kohm-byuha(n)) How A lot, How Many Combien ça coûte ?”, “Combien font six et trois ? How a lot does it value ? How a lot is six plus three?

Lastly, one phrase that may be very usually wanted:

ex:Parce que vous êtes trop vieux pour ça !” (Since you are too previous for this!)

Making flash-cards of all of the above French phrases, memorizing them (ahead to English/backward to French), gives you a head begin in all French Language programs.

Obstacle of studying by tips[edit]

There are a lot of strategies for college students to study new topics, and the primary methodology is to make use of what are often known as “tips,” designed to make it simpler (so it could appear). These tips, generally, merely forestall the mind from storing the knowledge for direct lookup. One instance is the French phrase chat. We will kind a rule, whereby anytime you see a ch in French, you’ll substitute a c and voilà – there you go. Others, akin to altering -ment to -ly or -ant to -ing are an identical waste of time.

A superb instance of the harm that may be carried out by these “tips”, is in studying Morse Code. Many lecturers will start by exhibiting the dit’s and dah’s visually, after which make the sound utilizing the important thing following every image. In order that dah-di-da-dit “-.-.” shall be saved within the mind as a c, and one way or the other (magically) retrieved to be used later.

Alas, this system solely works as much as a sure velocity, after which the scholars mind is so broken, they haven’t any hope of utilizing the code any sooner than 10 Phrases Per Minute. It was discovered (within the 1850’s), that for those who simply affiliate the entire sound with a letter, and ignore the combos of dit’s and dah’s, that new college students listening to 20 Phrases Per Minute for a number of weeks, have been capable of go to work instantly. A well-known Scottish-American named Andrew Carnegie went from a message boy to move telegraph operator by studying to affiliate sounds with entire phrases, and never simply writing down every character, as the strategy utilized by his friends.

The recommendation provided on this guide, is to keep away from these tips, and to affiliate phrase and sentence sounds with their that means. Take heed to the brand new phrase or sentence, and retailer the that means in your mind. Don’t attempt to translate one language into your native language earlier than responding. When somebody fingers you a stick of /di.na.mit/ (dee-nah-meet) you must shortly drop it and run, and never cease to translate it into dynamite first. Merely affiliate the phrase or sentence, however don’t translate it.

Whenever you buy groceries, and listen to prospects saying in English “How a lot is that?” then you definately kind an affiliation of that sentence to the individual desirous to know a value. Equally, for those who hear individuals out there asking “Combien ça coûte?” you do not have to translate the sentence, you affiliate it with individuals desirous to know a value (or extra usually desirous to know a lower cost whereas smiling seductively on the assistant). After associating ten issues concerning the phrase “Combien” the mind will simplify issues for you, very similar to it pulls the steering wheel along with your arm, after the eyes see a pot-hole forward. Endlessly extra, “Combien” shall be related to a amount “How a lot”, or “What number of” simply as pot-holes are related to “keep away from.”

French relies on the Latin alphabet (additionally referred to as the Roman alphabet), and there are 26 letters. Initially there have been 25 letters, with ‘W’ being added by the mid-nineteenth century. In contrast to the English, who name it a “double-u,” the French use “double-v” and pronounce it doo-bluh-vay after the ‘V’ which is pronounced (vay). Throughout the interval from Previous French to Fashionable French, the letter ‘Okay’ was added. These two letters are used largely with adopted overseas phrases. The French alphabet used as we speak is lower than 200 years previous.

The twenty-six letters are parted into :

  • 20 Consonants (Consonnes): B C D F G H J Okay L M N P Q R S T V W X Z
  • 6 Vowels (Voyelles): A E I O U Y

As well as, French makes use of a number of accents: grave accents (à, è, and ù) and acute accents (é). A circumflex applies to all vowels, besides Y (thought of as a vowel): â, ê, î, ô, û. A tréma (French for dieresis) can also be utilized: ë, ï, ü, ÿ. Two mixed letters (referred to as orthographic ligatures) are used: æ and œ. Lastly, a cedilla is used on the c to make it sound like an English s: ç.

Letters and examples[edit]

Supplementary orthography · Notes [edit]

Ultimate consonants[edit]

In French, sure consonants are silent when they’re the ultimate letter of a phrase. The letters p (as in coup (blow, shock) Listen /ku/ (koo)), s (as in héros (hero) Listen /e.ʁɔ/ (ay-roh)), t (as in chat (cat) Listen /ʃa/ (shah)), d (as in marchand (shopkeeper) Listen /maʁ.ʃɑ̃/ (mahr-shah(n))), and x (as in paresseux (lazy, sloth) Listen /pa.ʁɛ.sø/ (pah-reh-sew)), are typically not pronounced on the finish of a phrase. They’re pronounced if there may be an e letter after it (coupe (bowl, goblet) Listen /kup/ (koop), chatte (she-cat) Listen /ʃat/ (shaht), marchande (feminine shopkeeper) /maʁ.ʃɑ̃d/ (mahr-shah(n)d)).

Dental consonants[edit]

The letters d, l, n, s, t and z are pronounced with the tip of the tongue in opposition to the higher tooth and the center of the tongue in opposition to the roof of the mouth. In English, one would pronounce these letters with the tip of the tongue on the roof of 1’s mouth. It is rather troublesome to pronounce a phrase like voudrais /vud.ʁɛ/ correctly with the d shaped within the English method.

b and p[edit]

In contrast to English, if you pronounce the letters b and p in French, little to no air ought to come out of your mouth. When it comes to phonetics, the distinction within the French b and p and their English counterparts is certainly one of aspiration. Fortuitously, in English each aspirated and unaspirated variants (allophones) exist, however solely in particular environments. Should you’re a local speaker, say the phrase pit after which the phrase spit out loud. Did you discover the additional puff of air within the first phrase that does not include the second? The p in ‘pit’ is aspirated ([pʰ]); the p in ‘spit’ shouldn’t be (just like the p in any place in French).

q[edit]

The letter ‘q’ is at all times adopted by a ‘u’. There are solely two exceptions, ‘cinq’ (5) and ‘coq’ (rooster).

r[edit]

A last ‘r’ after ‘e’ is mostly mute, however it’s pronounced on phrases of 1 syllable ‘fer’ (iron), ‘mer’ (sea) and ‘hier’ (yesterday).

Aspirated and non-aspirated h[edit]

In French, the letter h could be aspirated (h aspiré), or not aspirated (h non aspiré), relying on which language the phrase was borrowed from. The h isn’t pronounced, whether or not it’s aspirated or not aspirated.

For instance, the phrase héros Listen /e.ʁɔ/ has an aspirated h. When a particular article (le, la, l’, les) is positioned earlier than it, the result’s le héros, and each phrases should be pronounced individually. Nonetheless, the female type of héros, héroïne Listen /eʁɔin/ is a non-aspirated h. Due to this fact, if you put a particular article in entrance of it, it turns into l’héroïne, and is pronounced as one phrase.

The one method to inform if the h initially of a phrase is aspirated is to look it up within the dictionary. Some dictionaries will place an asterisk (*) in entrance of the entry phrase within the French-English H part if the h is aspirated. Different dictionaries will embrace it within the pronunciation information after the important thing phrase by putting an apostrophe ( ‘ ) earlier than the pronunciation. In brief, the phrases should be memorized.

Here’s a desk of some fundamental h phrases which can be aspirated and never aspirated:

aspirated non-aspirated
héros, hero (le héros) héroïne, heroine (l’héroïne)
haïr, to hate (je hais) habiter, to dwell (j’habite)
huit, eight (le huit novembre) harmonie, concord (l’harmonie)

Supplementary orthography · Punctuation · La ponctuation[edit]

& esperluette, et industrial , virgule {   } accolades ~ tilde
apostrophe = égal  % pourcent @ arobase, a industrial, arobe
* astérisque $ greenback . level
« » guillemets ! level d’exclamation + plus
barre indirect inverse > supérieur à # dièse
[   ] crochets < inférieur à ? level d’interrogation
: deux factors moins, tiret, trait d’union _ soulignement
; level virgule (   ) parenthèses / barre indirect

The punctuation symbols in French operates very equally to English with the identical that means. The one punctuation image not current in French could be the citation marks; these are changed by the guillemets proven within the desk above. For speech in fiction, no citation marks are used. The 2 stroke punctuation marks (akin to ;, :, ?, !) could require a non-breaking house earlier than or after the mark in query.

Supplementary orthography · Diacritics [edit]

5 totally different sorts of accent marks are utilized in written French. In lots of instances, an accent adjustments the sound of the letter to which it’s added. In others, the accent has no impact on pronunciation. Accents in French by no means point out stress (which at all times falls on the final syllable). Accentuated letters are often by no means adopted by a double consonant (besides châssis as an example); furthermore on e accent turns into ineffective as a result of a following double consonant adjustments its pronunciation (e.g.: jeter ([ə],throw) however je jette (pronounced è, I throw). The next desk lists each French accent mark and the letters with which it may be mixed:

Accent Letters used Examples
acute accent (accent aigu) é éléphant Listen /e.le.fɑ̃/
grave accent (accent grave) è, à, ù fièvre Listen /fjɛvʁ/, là Listen /la/, où Listen /u/
circumflex (accent circonflexe) â, ê, î, ô, û gâteau Listen /ɡa.tɔ/, être Listen /ɛtʁ/, île Listen /il/, chômage /ʃɔ.maʒ/, dû /dy/
diaeresis (tréma) ë, ï, ü, ÿ Noël /nɔ.ɛl/, maïs Listen /ma.is/, aigüe /e.ɡy/
cedilla (cédille) ç français Listen /fʁɑ̃.sɛ/

Word that the letter ÿ is barely utilized in very uncommon phrases, largely previous city names like L’Haÿ-Les-Roses, a Paris surburb or Aÿ in Champagne area. This letter is pronounced like ï.

Word additionally that as of the spelling reform of 1990, the diaresis indicating gu shouldn’t be a digraph on phrases ending in guë and is now positioned on the u in normal (académie française) French: aigüe and never aiguë; cigüe and never ciguë; ambigüe and never ambiguë. Since this reform is comparatively latest and largely unknown to laypeople, the 2 spellings can be utilized interchangeably.

Acute accent · Accent aigu[edit]

The acute accent is the commonest accent utilized in written French. It’s only used with the letter e and is at all times pronounced /e/ (ay).

One use of the accent aigu is to kind the previous participle of normal -er verbs.

Infinitive Previous participle
aimer (to like) goalé (liked)
regarder (to observe) regardé (watched)

Grave accent · Accent grave[edit]

à and ù[edit]

Within the case of the letters à and ù, the grave accent is used to graphically distinguish one phrase from one other.

With out accent grave With accent grave
a (third pers. sing of avoir, to have) à (preposition, to, at, and many others.)
la (particular article for female nouns) (there)
ou (conjunction, or) (the place)

è[edit]

In contrast to à and ù, è shouldn’t be used to differentiate phrases from each other. The è is used for pronunciation. In cautious speech, an unaccented e is pronounced like an a on the top of a phrase in English /ə/, as in “Angela“, and in fast speech is typically not pronounced in any respect. The è is pronounced just like the letter e in pet.

Circumflex accent · Accent circonflexe[edit]

This accent is commonly referred to as a ‘hat’ in language and arithmetic, and often signifies the disappearance of the old-French s after the vowel carrying it (the hat) however this s can nonetheless be present in a noun or a verb of the identical lexical household. Examples are: hospital –> hôpital however hospitalité, maistre –> maître, gâteau from previous french gastel, ê is pronounced like è: Fenestre –> fenêtre however défenestrer, forest –> forêt however forestier.

Circumflex accent could also be used to have closed-o (la Drôme (French division), un dôme… ô is pronounced [o] like in château, with out this accent it could be mentioned just like the english phrase scorching ; whereas this pronunciation shouldn’t be actually utilized within the south of France.)

Up to now participle of devoir (should), a circumflex accent is written to differentiate it from the article du.

In response to the spelling reform of 1990 some circumflex accents are not obligatory (maître –> maitre, boîte –> boite…)

Cedilla · Cédille[edit]

The cedilla is used solely with the letter c, and is alleged to make the c tender, making it equal to the English and French s.

garçon Listen

Supplementary workout routines [edit]

TrainSaying b and p

  1. Get a free piece of printer paper or pocket book paper.
  2. Maintain the piece of paper about one inch (or a few centimeters) in entrance of your face.
  3. Say the phrases child, and pet such as you usually would in English. Discover how the paper moved if you mentioned the ‘b’ and the ‘p’ respectively.
  4. Now, with out making the piece of paper transfer, say the phrases belle (the female type of lovely in French, pronounced just like the English ‘bell.’), and papa (the French equal of “Dad”).
  • If the paper moved, your pronunciation is barely off. Focus, and check out it once more.
  • If the paper did not transfer, congratulations! You pronounced the phrases accurately!

TrainDiscovering h phrases

  1. Seize a French-English dictionary and discover at the very least ten aspirated h phrases, and ten non-aspirated h phrases
  2. On a chunk of paper, write down the phrases you discover in two columns
  3. Have a look at it day by day and memorize the columns

Vocabulary · Greetings · Les salutations[edit]

When speaking to 1’s friends or to kids, Salut is used as a greeting. Its English equivalents could be hello and hey. Bonjour, actually that means good day, ought to be used for anybody else. A method of remembering these greetings, is that they arrive in masculine/female pairs. One is upon arrival, the opposite upon departure.

jour : bonjour / bonne journée
matin : bonjour / bonne matinée (early within the morning), bonne journée (early or late within the morning)
après-midi : bonjour / bon(ne) après-midi (early within the afternoon), bonne journée (early or late within the afternoon), bonne soirée (late within the afternoon)
soir : bonjour, bonsoir / bonne soirée (early or late within the night), bonne nuit (very late within the night)
nuit : bonjour, bonsoir / bonne nuit

The French by no means say Bon matin, they do use matinée, journée, soirée however by no means use nuitée.

Vocabulary · Goodbye · Au revoir[edit]

Salut Listen /sa.ly/ (sah-lew) Hello./Bye. casual
Au revoir /o ʁə.vwaʁ/ (oh ruh-vwahr) Goodbye lit: to/till seeing once more
À demain /a də.mɛ̃/ (ah duh-ma(n)) See you tomorrow lit: to/till tomorrow
À tout à l’heure /a tu‿ta lœʁ/ (ah too-tah luhr) See you (later as we speak) idiomatic, lit: to all to the hour
À la prochaine /a la proʃɛn/ (ah lah proh-shehn) See you (tomorrow) lit: to/till subsequent time
À bientôt /a bjɛ̃.to/ (ah byuhe(n)-toh) See you quickly lit: to/till quickly
À plus tard /a ply taʁ/ (ah plew tahr) So long À plus (brief model for “see you”)
Ciao /tʃao/ (chow) Bye Italian
Bonne soirée /bɔn swaʁ.e/ (bohn swahr-ay) Have night
Bonne journée /bɔn ʒuʁ.ne/ (bohn zhoor-nay) Have a pleasant day

Along with getting used as a casual greeting, Salut additionally means bye. Once more, it ought to solely be used amongst pals. One other casual greeting is ciao, an Italian phrase generally utilized in France. Au revoir is the one formal method to say Goodbye. If you may be assembly somebody once more quickly, use À bientôt or À tout à l’heure. À demain is used if you may be seeing the individual the next day.

Vocabulary · Names [edit]

Tu t’appelles remark ? is used to informally ask somebody for his or her title. It’s regular to only reply by stating your title, nevertheless you may additionally reply with je m’appelle, that means I’m referred to as….

Jacques Bonsoir, Marie.
Good night, Marie.
Marie Euh ? Tu t’appelles remark ?
Eh? What’s your title?
Jacques Moi, je m’appelle Jacques.
Me, my title is Jacques.
Marie Ah, oui. Quoi de neuf, Jacques ?
Ah, sure. What’s new, Jacques?
Jacques Pas grand-chose. Alors, au revoir, à demain, Marie.
Not a lot. Then, bye, see you tomorrow, Marie.
Marie À la prochaine, Jacques.
See you, Jacques.

Vocabulary · How are you? · Ça va ?[edit]

Remark allez-vous ? (formal) ,
Remark vas-tu ? (casual) ,
Remark ça va ? / Ça va ? (casual)
About this sound /kɔ.mɑ̃‿tal.e vu/ ,
About this sound /kɔ.mɑ̃ va ty/ ,
About this sound /kɔ.mɑ̃ sa va/
How are you? lit: How do you go?, It goes?
Est-ce que vous allez bien ? About this sound /es.kə vu.z‿al.e bjɛ̃/ Are you nicely?
Ça va (très) bien About this sound /sa va (tʁɛ) bjɛ̃/ I am doing (very) nicely. lit. It is going (very) nicely
Je vais bien About this sound /ʒə ve bjɛ̃/ I’m nicely.
Ça va
Oui, ça va
About this sound /sa va/
About this sound /wi sa va/
Issues are going superb.
Sure, I am superb.
Très bien, merci About this sound /tʁɛ bjɛ̃ mɛʁ.si/ Very nicely, thanks.
Pas mal About this sound /pɑ mal/ Not Unhealthy
Pas si bien/pas très bien About this sound /pɑ si (tʁɛ) bjɛ̃/ Not so nicely
(très) mal About this sound /tʁɛ mal/ (very) unhealthy
Comme ci, comme ça About this sound /kɔm si kɔm sa/ So-so
Désolé(e) About this sound /de.zɔ.le/ Sorry. Désolée if female, similar pronunciation
Et toi ?
Et vous ?
About this sound /e twɑ/
About this sound /e vu/
And also you? (casual)
And also you? (formal)

DIALOGUE:
Two good pals, Olivier and Luc, are assembly.

Olivier Salut Luc. Ça va ?
Hello Luc. How are you?
Luc Ça va bien, merci. Et toi, ça va ?
I am nicely, thanks. And also you, how are you?
Olivier Pas mal.
Not unhealthy.
Luc Quoi de neuf ?
What’s new?
Olivier Pas grand-chose. Au revoir Luc.
Not a lot. Goodbye, Luc.
Luc Au revoir, à demain.
Goodbye, see you tomorrow.

Ça va ? is used to ask somebody how they’re doing. The phrase actually means It goes?, referring to the physique and life. A extra formal method to say that is Remark allez-vous ?. You possibly can reply through the use of ça va as a press release; Ça va. on this case is used for I am superb. The adverb bien/bjɛ̃/ is used to say nicely, and is commonly mentioned each alone and as Ça va bien. Bien is preceded by sure adverbs to specify the diploma to which you’re nicely. Widespread phrases are assez bien, that means somewhat nicely, très bien, that means very nicely, and vraiment bien, that means very well. The adverb mal/mal/ is used to say badly. Pasnot/pɑ/ is usually added to mal to kind Pas mal., that means Not unhealthy. Comme ci, comme ça., actually translating to Like this, like that., is used to say So, so.

To be well mannered, you may add merci/mɛʁ.si/, that means thanks, in your responses to the questions e.g., très bien, merci.

Workout routines [edit]

TrainTranslation

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Translate from French to English.
Bonne soirée Have night.
À tout à l’heure See you (later as we speak)
Je vais bien. I’m nicely.
Et vous ? And also you? (formal)
À demain See you tomorrow
Remark allez-vous ? How are you? (formal)
Salut Hello./Bye.
Très bien, merci. Very nicely, thanks.
Est-ce que vous allez bien ? Are you nicely?
Je m’appelle My title is
Bonne nuit Good evening
À bientôt See you quickly
Pas si bien/pas très bien Not so nicely
Ça va bien I am doing nicely.
Bonjour Hiya

TrainTranslation

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Translate from English to French.
What’s your title? Tu t’appelles remark ?
Have a pleasant day Bonne journée
Hello./Bye. Salut.
Not a lot. Pas grand-chose.
Have night Bonne soirée

TrainResponses

Your pal François sees you and begins a dialog. How would possibly you reply?
  • François: Salut. Remark vas-tu ?
  • You: _________
  • François: Quoi de neuf ?
  • You: _________
  • François: À la prochaine.
  • You: _________
TrainPrimary phrases dialogue
Put the next dialog so as:
First Second Third Fourth
1. Michel Je ne vais pas très bien. Bonjour, Jacques Au revoir Remark ça va?
2. Jacques Désolé. Ça va très bien! Et vous? Allez-vous bien? À demain. Salut, Michel!

Answer

First Second Third Fourth
1. Michel Bonjour, Jacques Remark ça va? Je ne vais pas très bien. Au revoir
2. Jacques Salut, Michel! Ça va très bien! Et vous? Allez-vous bien? Désolé. À demain.

Dialogue · A proper dialog · Une dialog formelle[edit]

Two individuals—Monsieur Bernard and Monsieur Lambert—are assembly for the primary time:

Monsieur Bernard Bonjour. Remark vous appelez-vous ?
Hiya. What’s your title?
Monsieur Lambert Je m’appelle Jean-Paul Lambert. Et vous ?
I’m Jean-Paul Lambert. And also you?
Monsieur Bernard Moi, je suis Marc Bernard. Enchanté.
Me, I’m Marc Bernard. Good to fulfill you.
Monsieur Lambert Enchanté.
Good to fulfill you.

Grammar · Vous vs. tu [edit]

This is a crucial distinction between French and English as we speak. English not distinguishes between the singular, and the plural, formal model of you. The usage of thou for the casual singular model pale virtually fully by the mid-nineteenth century.

In French, it is very important know when to make use of vous/vu/ and when to make use of tu/ty/.

Vous is the plural type of you. That is considerably equal to you all, you guys, all of you, besides that it doesn’t carry any familiarity when used with the plural. You’ll use it to deal with your mates in addition to when speaking to the entire authorities at a press convention.

Vous can also be used to consult with single people to indicate respect, to be well mannered or to be impartial. It’s used when speaking to somebody who’s necessary, somebody who’s older than you’re, or somebody with whom you’re unfamiliar. This is named Vouvoiement. Word the dialog between M. Bernard and M. Lambert above for instance of this use.

Conversely, tu is the singular and casual type of vous (you) in French. It’s generally used when referring to a pal or a member of the family, and can also be used between kids or when addressing a baby. Whether it is used when talking to a stranger, it indicators disrespect. This is named Tutoiement. As a rule of thumb, use tu solely if you would name that individual by his first title, in any other case use vous. French individuals will make it recognized when they want you to consult with them by tu. The usage of vous is much less widespread in Quebequois than in French from France.

In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction describes the scenario whereby a language has second-person pronouns that distinguish various ranges of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult towards the addressee. The expressions T-form (casual) and V-form (formal), with regards to the preliminary letters of those pronouns in Latin, tu and vos. In Latin, tu was initially the singular, and vos the plural, with no distinction for honorific or acquainted. It was solely between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries that the norms for using T- and V-forms crystallized.

Vocabulary · Courtesy · La politesse[edit]

Please S’il te plaît (Lit: If it pleases you.)
S’il vous plaît (formal).
Thanks (quite a bit) Merci (beaucoup)
You are welcome. De rien (Lit: It is nothing.)
Pas de quoi (No drawback.)
Je t’en prie I pray you (casual)
Je vous en prie (formal)

Vocabulary · Titles · Les titres[edit]

Vocabulary

Titles · Les titres

French Abbr. Pronunciation English, Utilization
Monsieur M. /mə.sjø/ (muh-syuhew) Mr., Sir
Messieurs M. /mesjø/ (maysyuhew) Gents
Madame Mme /ma.dam/ (mah-dahm) Mrs., Ma’am
Mesdames Mme /me.dam/ (may-dahm) Girls
Mademoiselle Mlle /mad.mwa.zɛl/  (mahd-mwah-zehl) Miss, Younger girl
Mesdemoiselles Mlle /med.mwa.zɛl/  (mayd-mwah-zehl) Younger girls
  • It is acceptable to make use of /mɛ.dam/ or /me.dam/ (meh-dahm) or (may-dahm)
  • Don’t forget to liaison if saying Mesdames et Messieurs /me.dam z‿e me.sjø/ (may-dam-zay-maysyuhew).

Vocabulary · Asking for one’s title · Demander le nom de quelqu’un[edit]

Remark vous appelez-vous ?
Quel est votre nom ?
What’s your title? (formal)
What’s your title?
Tu t’appelles remark ? What’s your title? (casual)
Je m’appelle…
Je suis…
Moi, je suis…
My title is…
I’m…
I am…

Word that with vous, the verb appelez is spelled with one ‘l’, whereas with tu it has two l’s (appelles). That is an irregular conjugation which shall be coated extra in-depth in a later lesson.

Workout routines [edit]

TrainIntroductions

You might be at your first enterprise convention representing your new firm, and your supervisor begins to talk with a colleague you’ve gotten by no means met. You need to greet him, inform him your title, and ask him his title.

TrainTranslation

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Translate from French to English.
S’il vous plaît Please
Remark vous appelez-vous ? How do you name your self?
Mesdames Girls
Je vous en prie. You are welcome.
Merci beaucoup Thanks quite a bit

TrainTranslation

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Translate from English to French.
Gents Messieurs
Miss Mademoiselle
My title is… Je m’appelle…
Please S’il te plaît, S’il vous plaît
TrainSelect between tu and vous. Which might you utilize for the next individuals?

  1. a instructor
  2. a finest pal
  3. somebody you simply met
  4. a gaggle of your mates
  5. a mum or dad
  6. a sibling
  7. a waiter at a restaurant

Answer

  1. vous (to indicate respect)
  2. tu (familiarity)
  3. vous (unfamiliar)
  4. vous (plural group, despite the fact that it’s casual)
  5. tu (acquainted)
  6. tu (acquainted)
  7. vous (possible unfamiliar, but additionally to indicate respect and to be well mannered)

Vocabulary · Cardinal numbers [edit]

We will comment that 21, 31, 41, 51, 61 and 71 can have et un with or with out a hyphen; in any other case this it’s merely each phrases consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, and many others) with a hyphen in between. For 100-199, cent is added earlier than the remainder of the quantity; this continues as much as 1000 and onward. Many audio system of French outdoors of France consult with the numbers 70 to 99 in the identical sample as the opposite numbers. As an illustration, in Switzerland and Belgium, 70 is septante/sɛp.tɑ̃t/, 71 is septante-et-un, 72 is septante-deux, and so forth; 90 is nonante/nɔ.nɑ̃t/, 91 is nonante-et-un/nɔ.nɑ̃t.e.œ̃/, 92 is nonante-deux, and so forth. In Switzerland, 80 is huitante or octante/ɔk.tɑ̃t/.

Supplementary vocabulary · Collective nouns [edit]

Supplementary vocabulary · Arithmetic · Les mathématiques[edit]

In French, the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are as follows:

Calculez:
un plus un = (égale) deux (the ultimate ‘s’ of ‘plus’ should be pronounced)
dix moins sept = trois
quatre fois trois = douze
vingt divisé par dix = deux

It’s possible you’ll typically use un plus un font deux.

Supplementary dialogue · In class · À l’école[edit]

Toto est un personnage imaginaire qui est un cancre à l’école. Il y a beaucoup d’histoires drôles sur Toto !
Toto is an imaginary character that could be a dunce at college. There are lots of humorous tales about Toto!
L’instituteur Bonjour, les enfants! Aujourd’hui c’est mardi, nous allons réviser la desk d’addition. Combien font huit plus six ?
Hiya, kids! At present is Tuesday, we are going to evaluation the addition desk. What’s eight plus six?
Toto Treize, monsieur !
13, sir!
L’instituteur Non Toto tu t’es trompé! Huit plus six égal quatorze. Et combien font cinq plus neuf ?
No Toto you have been fallacious! Eight plus six equals fourteen. And the way a lot is 5 plus 9?
Clément Quatorze !
Fourteen!
L’instituteur Très bien Clément.
Superb, Clément.

Supplementary vocabulary · Ordinal numbers · Les nombres ordinaux[edit]

Workout routines [edit]

TrainNo 1-10

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Write the quantity represented by every phrase.
un 1
huit 8
cinq 5
trois 3
neuf 9
dix 10
deux 2
quatre 4
sept 7
six 6

TrainNumbers 11-20

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Write the quantity represented by every phrase.
douze 12
dix-huit 18
quinze 15
treize 13
quatorze 14
dix-neuf 19
seize 16
vingt 20
onze 11
dix-sept 17

TrainNumbers 21-100

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Write the quantity represented by every phrase.
soixante-et-onze 71
cinquante 50
trente-et-un 31
quarante-cinq 45
soixante-huit 68
vingt-sept 27
quatre-vingt-un 81
cent 100
cinquante-trois 53
quatre-vingt-dix-neuf 99
soixante-dix 70
vingt-et-un 21
quarante-quatre 44

TrainNo 1-10

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Write the French phrase for every quantity.
7 sept
8 huit
6 six
9 neuf
4 quatre
3 trois
10 dix
1 un
2 deux
5 cinq

TrainNumbers 11-20

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Write the French phrase for every quantity.
19 dix-neuf
16 seize
15 quinze
14 quatorze
13 treize
11 onze
12 douze
20 vingt
17 dix-sept
18 dix-huit

TrainNumbers 21-100

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Write the French phrase for every quantity.
44 quarante-quatre
50 cinquante
70 soixante-dix
99 quatre-vingt-dix-neuf
68 soixante-huit
71 soixante-et-onze
81 quatre-vingt-un
31 trente-et-un
100 cent
53 cinquante-trois
45 quarante-cinq
21 vingt-et-un
27 vingt-sept

Supplementary workout routines [edit]

TrainCollective nouns

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Translate from French to English.
une vingtaine about twenty
un millier one thousand, a few thousand
une huitaine about eight
une unité a unity
une quarantaine about forty
une soixantaine about sixty
une trentaine about thirty

TrainComputations

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

huit plus cinq égal ____ huit plus cinq égal treize
cinq et un égal ____ cinq et un égal six
neuf plus huit égal ____ neuf plus huit égal dix-sept
trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal ____ trente-deux plus quarante-neuf égal quatre-vingt-un
soixante plus vingt égal ____ soixante plus vingt égal quatre-vingts
cinquante-trois plus douze égal ____ cinquante-trois plus douze égal soixante-cinq
dix-neuf plus cinquante égal ____ dix-neuf plus cinquante égal soixante-neuf
quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal ____ quarante-sept plus vingt-sept égal soixante-quatorze
Soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal ____ soixante-trois plus trente-deux égal quatre-vingt-quinze
soixante plus trente-deux égal ____ soixante plus trente-deux égal quatre-vingt-douze

TrainOrdinal numbers

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)

Translate from French to English.
quatorzième fourteenth
trentième thirtieth
neuvième ninth
quatrième fourth
quarante-et-unième forty-first
dixième tenth
vingt-deuxième twenty-second
soixante-dixième seventieth
quatorzième fourteenth
seizième sixthteenth

Vocabulary · Days · Les jours[edit]

Vocabulary

The times of the week · Les jours de la semaine

French Pronunciation English Origin
lundi /lœ̃di/ (luh(n)-dl and Chantal are talkee) Monday (Moon)
mardi /maʁdi/ (mahr-dee) Tuesday (Mars)
mercredi /mɛʁkʁədi/ (mehr-kruh-dee) Wednesday (Mercury)
jeudi /ʒødi/ (zhew-dee) Thursday (Jupiter)
vendredi /vɑ̃dʁədi/ (vah(n)-druh-dee) Friday (Venus)
samedi /samdi/ (sahm-dee) Saturday (Saturn)
dimanche /dimɑ̃ʃ/ (dee-mah(n)sh) Sunday (Dies Domini)
  • The times of the week usually are not capitalized in French.
  • The calender begins on Monday, not like the English Sunday.
  • ^ On est quel jour aujourd’hui? is much less formal however extra widespread.
  • Nous sommes… shouldn’t be used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C’était (previous) or C’est (current/future) should be used accordingly.

Vocabulary · Months · Les mois[edit]

Vocabulary

The months of the 12 months · Les mois de l’année

French Pron. English
janvier /ʒɑ̃vje/ (zhah(n)-vyuhay) January
février /fevʁije/, /fevʁje/ (fay-vree-yuhay / fay-vryuhay) February
mars /maʁs/ (mahrs) March
avril /avʁil/ (ahv-reel) April
mai /mɛ/ (meh) Might
juin /ʒɥɛ̃/ (zhoo-a(n)) June
juillet /ʒɥijɛ/ (zhoo-ee-yuheh) July
août /ut/, /u/ (oot/oo) August
septembre /sɛptɑ̃bʁ/ (sehp-tah(n)-br) September
octobre /ɔktɔbʁ/ (ohk-toh-br) October
novembre /nɔvɑ̃bʁ/ (noh-vah(n)-br) November
décembre /desɑ̃bʁ/ (day-sah(n)-br) December
  • The months of the 12 months usually are not capitalized in French.

Vocabulary

Asking for the date
· Demander la date

Quelle est la date
(d’aujourd’hui) ?
/kɛl ɛ la dat/ (kehl eh lah daht) What’s the date
(as we speak)?
C’est le [#] [month]. /sɛ lə/ (seh lah) It is [month] [#].

On Might 5, one would say “C’est le cinq mai.” Nonetheless, the primary of the month makes use of “le premier” (the primary): C’est le premier août (August 1).

Dialogue · What day is it? [edit]

Vocabulary · Seasons · Les saisons[edit]

Vocabulary · Age [edit]

Quel âge as-tu ? How previous are you? lit: You may have what age?
J’ai trente ans. I am thirty (years previous). lit: I’ve thirty years
Quel âge avez vous ? How previous are you? (formal)
Quel âge a-t-il ? How previous is he?
Quel âge a-t-elle ? How previous is she?

Dialogue · How previous are you? [edit]

Marcel and Chantal are speaking about how previous they’re. They’re good pals.

  • Chantal – Quel âge as-tu, Marcel ?
  • Marcel – J’ai huit ans. Et toi ?
  • Chantal – J’ai dix ans. Quel âge a-t-elle ?
  • Marcel – Elle a six ans.

Vocabulary · Time · Le temps[edit]

In French, il est is used to precise the time; although it could actually translate as he’s, it’s truly, on this case, equal to it’s (impersonal il). In contrast to in English, it’s at all times necessary to make use of heures (hours) when referring to the time. In English, it’s okay to say It’s 9, however this wouldn’t make sense in French.

Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it?
Il est une heure. It’s one o’clock.
Il est trois heures. It’s three o’clock.
Il est dix heures. It’s ten o’clock.
Il est midi. It’s midday.
Il est minuit. It’s midnight.
Il est quatre heures cinq. It’s 5 previous 4.
Il est quatre heures et quart. It’s a quarter previous 4.
Il est quatre heures moins le quart It’s a quarter until 4.
Il est quatre heures quinze. It’s 4 fifteen.
Il est quatre heures et demie. It’s half previous 4.
Il est quatre heures trente. It’s 4 thirty.
Il est cinq heures moins vingt. It’s twenty to 5.
Il est quatre heures quarante. It’s 4 forty.

Time is commonly abbreviated utilizing h for heure(s). For instance, 9 o’clock AM could be 9h or 9h00. In addition they use 24-hour time on this format, so 10 o’clock PM could be 22h.

Supplementary vocabulary · Extra time expressions [edit]

une heure 1:00
deux heures cinq 2:05
trois heures dix 3:10
quatre heures et quart 4:15
cinq heures vingt 5:20
six heures vingt-cinq 6:25
sept heures et demie 7:30
huit heures moins vingt-cinq 7:35
neuf heures moins vingt 8:40
dix heures moins le quart 9:45
onze heures moins dix 10:50
midi (minuit) moins cinq 11:55
minuit midnight
midi midday

Vocabulary · Occasions of day · L’heure relative[edit]

le lever du jour dawn lit: the rise of the day
le lever du soleil dawn lit: the rise of the solar
le soleil levant rising solar
le matin morning
…du matin A.M. lit: of the morning
hier matin yesterday morning
le midi midday, noon
le minuit midnight
l’après-midi (m) afternoon
le soir night, within the night
…du soir P.M. lit: of the night
la nuit evening
le coucher du soleil sundown

Dialogue · What time is it? [edit]

  • Jean-Quelle heure est-il?
  • Paul-Il est midi.
  • Jean -Quelle heure est-il?
  • Paul-Il est deux heures du matin.

Supplementary dialogue · The director · Le directeur[edit]

Daniel (frappe à la porte : toc toc toc)
(knocks on the door: knock knock knock)
Le directeur Entrez !
Enter!
Daniel Bonjour, monsieur le directeur. Est-ce que vous allez bien ?
Hiya, Mr. Director. Are you nicely?
Le directeur Je vais bien merci. Et vous, remark allez-vous ?
I’m nicely, thanks. And also you, how are you?
Daniel Je vais bien. Je veux vous demander s’il est attainable d’organiser une fête pour mon anniversaire. Je l’organiserais le Three mars vers 14 h.
I am nicely. I need to ask you whether it is attainable to prepare a celebration for my birthday. I might set up it on the third of March round 02:00 PM.
Le directeur Et vous voulez l’organiser où ?
And the place do you need to organise it?
Daniel Dans la grande salle de réunion au deuxième étage. On en aurait besoin jusqu’à 16 h, le temps de tout nettoyer.
Within the giant convention room on the second flooring. We would wish it till 04:00 PM, the time of cleansing every part.
Le directeur Entendu ! J’ espère que je serais invité ?
Agreed! I hope that I might be invited?
Daniel Bien sûr ! Merci Beaucoup !
After all! Thanks quite a bit!
Le directeur Au revoir !
Goodbye!
Daniel Au revoir et encore merci !
Goodbye and thanks once more.

G: The French alphabet[edit]

Grammar

The French Alphabet · L’alphabet français

Characters Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm
Pronunciation ah bay say day uh ehf zhay ahsh ee zhee kah ehl ehm
Characters Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Pronunciation ehn oh pay kew ehr ehs tay ew vay doo-bluh-vay eeks ee-grehk zehd

As well as, French makes use of a number of accents that are value understanding. These are: à, è, ù, (grave accents) and é (acute accent). A circumflex applies to all vowels: â, ê, î, ô, û. A tréma (French for dieresis) can also be utilized: ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ÿ. Two mixed letters are used: æ and œ, and a cedilla is used on the c to make it sound like an English s: ç.

V: Primary phrases[edit]

Vocabulary

Primary Phrases · Les expressions de base

bonjour, salut hey (formal), hello (casual)
Remark allez-vous ? (formal),
Remark vas-tu ? (casual),
Remark ça va ? / Ça va ? (casual)
(lit: The way you go/The way it goes?)
ça va (très) bien I am doing (very) nicely (lit. It goes (very) nicely)
merci thanks
et toi ? et vous ? and also you? (casual) and also you? (formal)
pas mal not unhealthy
bien nicely
pas si bien/pas très bien not so nicely
comme ci, comme ça so-so
Désolé(e) I am sorry.
quoi de neuf ? what’s up with you? (lit. what’s new)
pas grand-chose not a lot (lit. no big-thing)
au revoir bye
à demain see you tomorrow (lit. at tomorrow)
à plus tard goodbye
Au revoir, à demain. Bye, see you tomorrow

V: Numbers[edit]

Vocabulary

Numbers · Les nombres

un 1 une unité (a unity)
deux 2  
trois 3  
quatre 4  
cinq 5  
six 6  
sept 7  
huit 8  
neuf 9  
dix 10 une dizaine (one ten)
onze 11  
douze 12 une douzaine (one dozen)
treize 13  
quatorze 14  
quinze 15  
seize 16  
dix-sept 17  
dix-huit 18  
dix-neuf 19  
vingt 20  
vingt et un 21  
vingt [deux – neuf] 22-29
trente 30  
trente et un 31  
trente [deux – neuf] 32-39  
quarante 40  
cinquante 50  
soixante 60  
soixante-dix 70  
soixante et onze 71  
soixante-[douze – dix-neuf] 72-79  
quatre-vingts 80  
quatre-vingt-un 81  
quatre-vingt-[deux – neuf] 82-89  
quatre-vingt-dix 90  
quatre-vingt-[onze – dix-neuf] 91-99  
cent 100 une centaine (100)
[deux – neuf] cents 200-900  
deux cent un 201  
neuf cent un 901  
mille 1.000 un millier (one thousand)
(un) million 1.000.000  
(un) milliard 1.000.000.000  
(un) billion 1.000.000.000.000  

Issues of observe about numbers[edit]

  • For 70-79, it builds upon “soixante” however previous that it builds upon a mix of phrases for 80-99
  • Solely the primary (21,31,41,51,61 and 71, however not 81 nor 91) have “et un” with out a hyphen; however previous this it’s merely each phrases consecutively (vingt-six, trente-trois, and many others.) with a hyphen in between.
  • For 100-199, it seems to be very similar to this record already save that “cent” is added earlier than the remainder of the quantity; this continues as much as 1000 and onward.

V: Asking for the day/date/time[edit]

Vocabulary

Asking For The Day, Date, Time · Demander le jour, la date, le temps

Asking for the day.
1a Aujourd’hui c’est quel jour? At present is what day? (oh-zhur-dewee seh kehl zhoor)
1b Aujourd’hui c’est [jour]. At present is [day].
2a Demain c’est quel jour Tomorrow is what day? (duh-ma(n) seh kehl zhoor)
2b Demain c’est [jour]. Tomorrow is [day].
Asking for the date.
3a Quelle est la date
(aujourd’hui)?
What’s the date
(as we speak)?
(kehl eh lah daht)
3b C’est le [#] [month]. It is [month] [#].
Asking for the time.
4a Quelle heure est-il? What hour/time is it? (kehl ewr eh-teel)
4b Il est quelle heure? (eel eh kehl ewr)
5 Il est [nombre] heure(s). It’s [number] hours. (eel eh [nombre] ewr)

V: Time[edit]

In French, “il est” is used to precise the time; although it could actually translate as “he’s”, it’s truly, on this case, equal to “it’s” (unpersonal “il”). In contrast to in English, it’s at all times necessary to make use of “heures” (“hours”) when referring to the time. In English, it’s OK to say, “It’s 9,” however this wouldn’t make sense in French. The French time system historically makes use of a 24-hour scale. Shorthand for writing instances in French follows the format “17h30”, which might symbolize 5:30PM in English.

Vocabulary

Time · Le temps

Quelle heure est-il ? What time is it?
Il est une heure. It’s one o’clock.
Il est trois heures. It’s three o’clock.
Il est dix heures. It’s ten o’clock.
Il est midi. It’s midday.
Il est minuit. It’s midnight.
Il est quatre heures cinq. It’s 5 previous 4.
Il est quatre heures et quart. It’s a quarter previous 4.
Il est quatre heures quinze. It’s 4 fifteen.
Il est quatre heures et demie. It’s half previous 4.
Il est dix-neuf heures moins le quart. It’s a quarter to seven, or six forty-five.
Il est quatre heures trente. It’s 4 thirty.
Il est cinq heures moins vingt. It’s twenty to 5.
Il est quatre heures quarante. It’s 4 forty.

V: The times of the week.[edit]

Vocabulary

The times of the week · Les jours de la semaine

French Pronunciation English Origin
lundi /lœ̃di/ (luh(n)-dee) Monday (Moon)
mardi /maʁdi/ (mahr-dee) Tuesday (Mars)
mercredi /mɛʁkʁədi/ (mehr-kruh-dee) Wednesday (Mercury)
jeudi /ʒødi/ (zhur-dee) Thursday (Jupiter)
vendredi /vɑ̃dʁədi/ (vah(n)-druh-dee) Friday (Venus)
samedi /samdi/ (sahm-dee) Saturday (Saturn)
dimanche /dimɑ̃ʃ/ (dee-mah(n)sh) Sunday (Dies Domini)
  • The times of the week usually are not capitalized in French.
  • For phrases regarding the day of the week, see the phrasebook.

Notes:

  • What day is it as we speak? is equal to Quel jour sommes-nous ?.
  • Quel jour sommes-nous ? could be answered with Nous sommes…, C’est… or On est… (final two are much less formal).
  • Nous sommes… shouldn’t be used with hier, aujourd’hui, or demain. C’était (previous) or C’est (current/future) should be used accordingly.

V: The months of the 12 months[edit]

V: Relative date and time[edit]

Vocabulary

Relative Date and Time · Date et heure kin

Occasions of Day
le lever du jour dawn
lit:the rise of the day
le lever du soleil dawn
lit: the rise of the solar
le soleil levant rising solar.
le matin morning
…du matin A.M., lit: of the mornng
hier matin yesterday morning
le midi midday, noon
l’après-midi (m) afternoon
le soir night, within the night
…du soir P.M. lit: of the night
le coucher du soleil sundown
la nuit evening
Relative Days
avant-hier the day earlier than yesterday
hier yesterday
aujourd’hui as we speak
ce soir tonight
demain tomorrow
après-demain the day after tomorrow

V: Seasons[edit]

Dialogue · A dialog between pals · Une dialog entre amis[edit]

Daniel Bonjour Hervé. Remark vas-tu ?
Hiya, Hervé. How are you?
Hervé Je vais bien, merci. Et toi ça va ?
I am good,1 thanks. And also you, it goes (superb)?
Daniel Ça va bien. Est-ce que2 tu viens à mon anniversaire ? J’organise une petite fête.
It goes nicely. You are coming to my get together? I am organizing a bit of get together.
Hervé C’est quand ?
When is it?
Daniel Le Three mars à 20h.
March Three at 08:00 PM.
Hervé Le Three mars, entendu. Tu fais ça chez toi3 ?
March 3, agreed. You are having it at your home?
Daniel Oui c’est chez moi. J’ai invité une vingtaine d’amis. On va danser toute la nuit.
Sure, it is at my place. I’ve invited (a set of) twenty pals. We4 are going to bounce all evening.
Hervé C’est très gentil de m’inviter, merci. A bientôt.
It is very good to ask me, thanks. So lengthy.
Daniel A demain, bonne journée.
Till tomorrow, good day.

^1 Bien… is an adverb that means nicely. Its adjective equal is bon(ne), which suggests good. Since je vais, that means I’m going, makes use of an motion verb,
the adverb bien is used. In English, I am good, which makes use of the linking verb am, is adopted by an adjective somewhat than an adverb.

^2 Est-ce que… doesn’t suggest something (just like the Spanish the wrong way up query mark) and is used to start out a query.
This can be utilized in an identical method to do in English. As a substitute of You need it?, one can say Would you like it?

^3 chez… is a preposition that means on the home of…. Chez moi is used to say at my place. Chez [name] is used to say at [name’s] place.

^4 on… can imply we or one.

The next check will verify your progress within the French introduction. Attempt to reply the inquiries to the very best of your capacity with out turning to the earlier chapters or consulting the check solutions.

Grammar[edit]

Verb varieties[edit]

Title the verb varieties for the topic and infinitive specified. (1 level every)

Translating[edit]

English to French[edit]

Translate the next phrases and sentences into French. (2 factors every)

  1. What day is as we speak?
  2. How are you?
  3. What’s your title?

French to English[edit]

Translate this dialogue between Henri and Jacques into English. Every phrase is value 1 factors. (11 factors complete)

  1. Bonjour! Quel est ton nom?
  2. Je m’appelle Jacques. Remark vous-appelez vous?
  3. Je m’appelle Henri. Remark ça va?
  4. Pas mal. Et toi, remark ça va?
  5. Trés bien, merci. À demain Jacques!
  6. À demain Henri.

Studying comprehension[edit]

Fill within the clean[edit]

Fill within the blanks in these conversations. Word: Each clean is one phrase. (1 level every)

Vocabulary[edit]

Matching[edit]

Match the French phrases with their English definitions. (1 level every)

By the top of this lesson, you must perceive:

Qu’est-ce que c’est ? C’est une colombe.
Voici les deux garçons !

Grammar · Gender of nouns · Style des noms[edit]

Nouns are phrases that symbolize one thing perceived or conceived, like an apple or a thought.
In French, all nouns have a grammatical gender; that’s, they’re both masculine (m) or female (f).

Most nouns that specific individuals or animals have each a masculine and a female kind. For instance, the 2 phrases for the cat in French are le chat (m) and la chatte (f).

Nonetheless, there are some nouns that discuss individuals or animals whose gender is mounted, whatever the precise gender of the individual or animal. For instance, la personnethe individual is at all times female, even when it is speaking about your uncle; le professeurthe instructor is at all times masculine, even when it is speaking about your feminine professor or instructor.

The nouns that specific issues with out an apparent gender (e.g., objects and summary ideas) have just one kind. This way could be masculine or female. For instance, la voiturethe automobile can solely be female; le stylothe pen can solely be masculine.

Supplementary grammar · Widespread endings [edit]

Masculine nouns
-age le fromage the cheese
-d le pied the foot
-g le rang the rank
-isme le matérialisme materialism
-ment le mouvement the motion
-n le ballon the balloon
-r le professeur the instructor
-t le chat the cat
Female nouns
-ce la grâce the grace
-che la touche the contact
-ée la durée the period
-ie la boulangerie the bakery
-ion la nation the nation
-ite/-ité la stabilité stability
-lle la fille the woman
-nce la steadiness the scales
-nne la personne the individual
-ure la determine the determine

Exceptions[edit]

There are a lot of exceptions to gender guidelines in French which might solely be discovered. There are even phrases which can be spelled the identical, however have a distinct that means when masculine or female; for instance, le livre means the guide, however la livre means the pound. Some phrases that seem like masculine (akin to la photograph, which ought to be masculine however shouldn’t be as a result of it’s truly brief for la photographie) are actually female, and vice versa. Then there are some that simply do not make sense; la foi is female and means religion or perception, whereas le foie is masculine and means liver.

Vocabulary · Instance nouns [edit]

Grammar · Articles [edit]

The particular article · L’article défini[edit]

In English, the particular article is at all times the.

In French, the particular article is modified relying on the noun’s:

  1. gender
  2. quantity
  3. first letter

There are three particular articles and an abbreviation. Le is used for masculine nouns, La is used for female nouns, Les is used for plural nouns (each masculine or female), and L’ is used when the noun is singular and begins with a vowel or silent h (each masculine or female). It’s much like English, the place a adjustments to an earlier than a vowel.

In contrast to English, the particular article is used to speak about one thing in a normal sense, a normal assertion or feeling about an thought or factor.

Elision[edit]

Elision refers back to the suppression of a last unstressed vowel instantly earlier than one other phrase starting with a vowel. The particular articles le and la are shortened to l’ after they come earlier than a noun that begins with a vowel or silent h. When pronounced, the vowel sound is dropped.

(le) ami l’ami (lah-mee) the (male) pal
(la) amie l’amie (lah-mee) the (feminine) pal
(le) élève l’élève (lay-lehv) the pupil
(la) heure l’heure (lewr) the hour, the time

Elision doesn’t happen on an aspired h:

(le) héros: le hérosthe hero

Along with the particular article, elision can even happen with different phrases, akin to que, je, le, ce, ne, and de. The small print on these phrases shall be coated in later sections of the guide.

The indefinite article · L’article indéfini[edit]

In English, the indefinite articles are a and an. Some is used as a plural article in English.

Once more, indefinite articles in French take totally different varieties relying on gender and quantity. The articles un and une actually imply one in French.

singular female une /yn/ (ewn) une fille[2] a daughter
masculine un /œ̃/ (uh(n)) un fils a son
plural des /dɛ/ (deh) des filles some daughters
des fils[3] some sons

^ une is commonly (most of the time) pronounced (ewnuh) in poetry and lyric.
^ Des fils does imply some sons, however is a homograph: it might additionally imply some threads (when pronounced like About this sound /fil/ ).

Some[edit]

Word that des, like les, is utilized in French earlier than plural nouns when no article is utilized in English. For instance, you’re looking at images in an album. The English assertion I’m taking a look at images. can’t be translated to French as Je regarde photographies. as a result of an article is required to inform which images are being checked out. If it’s a set of particular photos, the French assertion ought to be Je regarde les photographies.I’m taking a look at the images. Then again, if the individual is simply shopping the album, the French translation is Je regarde des photographies.I’m taking a look at some images.

Plurality, pronunciation, and exceptions[edit]

The plural of most nouns is shaped by including an -s. Nonetheless, the -s ending shouldn’t be pronounced. It’s the article that tells the listener whether or not the noun is singular or plural.

Most singular nouns don’t finish in -s. The -s is added for the plural type of the noun. Fils is one exception. Each time the singular type of a noun ends in -s, there isn’t any change within the plural kind.

le fils
the son
les fils
the sons
un fils
a son
des fils
(some) sons
le cours
the course
les cours
the programs
un cours
a course
des cours
(some) programs

The ultimate consonant is sort of at all times not pronounced until adopted by an -e (or one other vowel). Fils/fis/ can also be an exception to this rule.

Liaison[edit]

Keep in mind that the final consonant of a phrase is often not pronounced until adopted by a vowel. When a phrase ending in a consonant is adopted by a phrase starting with a vowel sound (or silent h), the consonant usually turns into pronounced. This can be a course of referred to as liaison. When a vowel goes immediately after un, the usually unpronounced n sound turns into pronounced.

Evaluate the pronunciation to phrases with out liaison:

un garçon/ɶ̃ gaʁsɔ̃/

Une is unaffected by liaison.

Liaison additionally happens with les and des.

As with elision, an aspired h is not liaised:

(les) hangars: les hangarsle æŋgəʁ

Vocabulary · Folks · Les personnes[edit]

Vocabulary · Expressions [edit]

Qu’est-ce que c’est ?[edit]

To say What’s it? or What’s that? in French, Qu’est-ce que c’est ?/kɛs kə sɛ/ is used.

Qu’est-ce que…?What’s it that ? is used usually to say What…? initially of sentences.

To reply to this query, you say C’est un(e) [nom]., that means It’s a [noun]:

C’est un livre.It is a guide.

Keep in mind that the indefinite article (un or une) should agree with the noun it modifies:

C’est une chemise.It is a shirt.

Il y a[edit]

Il y a/il.ja/ is used to say there may be or there are. Il y a expresses the existence of the noun it introduces.

Il y a une pomme.There may be an apple.

The phrase is used for each singular and plural nouns. In contrast to in English (isare), il y a doesn’t change kind.

Il y a des pommes.There are (some) apples.

The -s on the finish of probably the most pluralised nouns tells you that the phrase is there are as a substitute of there may be. In spoken French, when each the singular and plural varieties virtually at all times sound the identical, the article (and maybe different adjectives modifying the noun) is used to differentiate between singular and plural variations.

A is the current third individual singular type of the verb to have, and y is a pronoun that means there. The phrase il y a, then, actually interprets to he has there. This phrase is utilized in all French tenses. You will need to do not forget that verb stays as a type of have and never be.

Voici and voilà[edit]

Like in English, il y a… shouldn’t be usually used to level out an object. To level out an object to the listener, use voici/vwa.si/, that means over right here is/are or proper right here is/are, and voilà/vwa.la/, that means over there may be/are, or there you’ve gotten it.

Voici les deux garçons !Listed here are the 2 boys!

Examples[edit]

C’est un chien. It is a canine.
Il y a un problème. There’s a drawback.
Il y a deux personnes ici. There are two individuals right here.
Il y a deux tables dans le salon. There are two tables within the lounge.
Il n’y a pas de chat. There isn’t any cat.
il n’y a pas que toi. You aren’t the one one.
Voici le fromage. This is the cheese.
Voila une pomme There’s an apple.

Workout routines [edit]

TrainReply in keeping with the images.

Qu’est-ce que c’est?
C’est ….

TrainMatching

Match every noun with its corresponding picture.
une colombe
des livres
une chemise
des chevaux
une maison

TrainTranslation

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)
Translate every phrase from English to French

the boy le garçon
the feminine pal l’amie, la copine
the person l’homme
the little woman la fillette
the lady la femme
the individual la personne
the woman la fille
the male pal l’ami, le copain

TrainTranslation

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)
Translate every phrase from French to English

l’amie the feminine pal
la fillette the little woman
la personne the individual
la femme the lady
l’ami the male pal
la copine the feminine pal
le garçon the boy
la fille the woman
le copain the male pal
l’homme the person

Supplementary workout routines [edit]

TrainGender

(Spotlight or hover over a line to indicate the reply.)
Classify every noun as masculine or female primarily based on its ending.

rapidité female
mutisme masculine
récréation female
bricolage masculine
paille female
découpage masculine
grenouille female
gallicisme masculine
robinet masculine
différence female
rondelle female
optimisme masculine
query female
modernisme masculine
vaisselle female
paysage masculine
ambulance female
originalité female
famille female
sévérité female
couronne female
particularité female
anarchisme masculine
feuille female
mobilité female
télévision female
oreille female
panne female
frite female
ordonnance female
professionnalisme masculine
sincérité female
invitation female
passage masculine
abeille female
résolubilité female
canne female
consideration female
validité female
bagage masculine
coquillage masculine
créativité female
probability female
monolinguisme masculine
village masculine

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