History of wireless telegraphy and broadcasting in Australia/Topical/Lists/AM Radio Frequencies

This is an incomplete list of AM broadcast (medium wave) radio transmitter stations in Australia, past and present.

History[edit]

See also main article History of broadcasting in Australia

The amateur years[edit]

In the 1920s transmission on the medium wave band was dominated by amateurs who after qualifying by means of an examination and displaying proficiency in Morse code communication (though the band was restricted to telephony), were issued with a call sign consisting of a number denoting for which State the licence was issued (2=NSW, 3=Vic; 4=Qld; 5=SA and NT; 6=WA; 7=Tas) and a two-letter suffix of their own choosing. A licence fee was paid to the Postmaster General’s Department, renewable every five years.
Amateurs generally designed and built their own equipment.
One such amateur was Tom Elliot, who in 1921 established station 4CM for its owner Dr. McDowall. This would be part of the impetus behind the Queensland Government establishing 4QG, Australia’s first Government-owned station.[1]

Another noted pioneer was Charles “Charlie” Maclurcan, whose station 2CM made many distance records on long and short wave, but apparently never experimented with medium wave, the subject of this article.

Radio receivers were also the province of enthusiasts, who were required to own a listener’s licence. Much interest revolved around reception of distant signals (“DX” in the amateurs’ terminology) and much valuable experience in the vagaries of radio propagation was gained by the listeners, many of whom collected “QSL” cards — acknowledgement of a confirmed reception by the transmitting station.

Program material was supplied by the amateur, and included talks, recitations, readings from books and newspapers, and live or recorded music (in those days no copyright fees were payable). Broadcast times may have been for only a few hours a day and a few days a week.

Commercialization[edit]

In August 1923 laws were passed after an American model, as recommended by Ernest Fisk,[2] by which “Sealed Set” receivers were built to receive a single frequency, that of the issuing company, whose income depended on sale or rental of these receivers, a situation analogous to Pay-TV services today. In the early days of the tuned radio-frequency receiver the simplicity of a “sealed set” would have been seen as a great convenience.
Amateur constructors were however able to build tuneable (or “open”) receivers and thereby gain a wider range of entertainment without fee.[3]

This situation could not endure, and in mid-1924 “open” sets became legal, but subject to an annual “broadcast listener’s licence”, the fees of which would be apportioned to “A-class” broadcasters.[4]

Among the six licences granted under the “sealed set” regime[5] were several (5MA in Adelaide and 3FC in Melbourne) which were unable to adapt to the changes and failed commercially. Perhaps significantly, the transmitters of both stations mentioned were on long wavelengths (850 m. and 1720 m. respectively) unable to be picked up by ordinary medium-wave receivers. The others were granted “A-class” licences. 2FC was also on a long wavelength (1100 m) but converted to 442 metres.

As originally legislated, “A-class” broadcasters’ licences were issued to broadcasters who undertook to:[6]

  • Install a transmitter of 5 kW power rating to a standard approved by, and on a frequency allocated by, the Postmaster General (PMG).
  • Make a deposit of £1000 with the PMG and organise a surety of a further £1000 from an approved stakeholder
  • Run regular programmes of general interest to the satisfaction of the PMG.
  • The “A-class” broadcaster was permitted to run advertisements of no longer than 5 minutes duration and no more than 60 minutes in any 12-hour period.

The number of “A-class” stations in New South Wales and Victoria was limited to two each, and one to each of the other States.
“B-class” stations were not encumbered by the same regulations. They received no part of the listeners’ licences, but were permitted to fund their operations through advertising.

In 1925 a domestic broadcast listener’s licence cost £1/15/-, of which the broadcasting station received £1/10/-. It did not entitle the holder to disseminate information or programmes (that required permission from the broadcaster), nor to amplify the audio for the benefit of customers, as in a barber shop or hotel. That required payment of a further £10/- fee. Radio dealers were prohibited from installing loudspeakers outside the shop’s radio department.[7]
Collections for the year 1924/25 amounted to around £114,000 which was apportioned:

2FC: £35,000 | 2BL: £12,000
3LO: £14,000 | 3AR: £4,000
6WF: £4,000; the balance being retained by the Government.[8]
By 1932 the fee had been reduced to £1/4/-.[9]
The broadcast listener’s licence in 1962 cost £2/15/- per annum, per household, and the Television Licence was £5 (£1/5/- for pensioners and blind people).[10] It was a bothersome licence to renew, requiring a trip to a Post Office; difficult to enforce, as evasions could only be detected while a set was in use, and expensive to prosecute. In 1974 these licences were abolished by the reformist Whitlam government.

In the late 1920s amateurs were slowly displaced by professional organizations holding “A-class” or “B-class”[11] licences, many of which were a continuation or development of an amateur operation. Amateurs were then obliged to pursue their hobby on higher frequency “amateur” bands.[12]

National Broadcasting Service[edit]

The takeover by the Commonwealth Government of “A Class” broadcasters began in 1928 when the Australian Broadcasting Company Ltd. (founded 1926 with a capital of £100,000) won a Government contract to provide programming nationwide for the “A-class” stations in each State: 2FC Sydney[13] and 3AR Melbourne[14] in 1929, 4QG in Brisbane in 1930, 5CL in Adelaide 1929, and 6WF in Perth.
The Postmaster General’s Department took over responsibility for provision, maintenance and operation of technical facilities of their studios and transmitters, giving the Government an ultimate veto over ABC broadcasts, a situation which would endure until the 1980s.
Most of the commercial and ABC broadcast transmitters were manufactured and installed by either Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) (AWA) or Standard Telephones and Cables (STC), with one or two by Scott and Co., of Sydney.

The Australian Broadcasting Company became the Australian Broadcasting Commission in July 1932, with stations 2FC, 2BL, 2NC, 2CO, 3LO, 3AR, 4QG, 4RK, 5CL, 5CK, 6WP and 7ZL forming a national system with six capital city stations and four regional stations forming one network, and 2BL and 3LO the foundation of what would become a second network.[9]

In October 1937 the roles of the two arms of the NBS were reversed in Sydney and Melbourne: 2BL took over the No 1 National programme from 2FC; 3AR from 3LO, and the newly commissioned 5AN from 5CL.[15]

AM Stereo[edit]

Realistic TM-152 AM stereo tuner; sold for $A150 in 1988

In the early 1960s, before stereophonic record players became commonplace, and long before FM broadcasting, some stations (notably 3XY and 3UZ) partnered to present stereophonic programmes, one station to each channel, so the listener could set up a pair of radios and experience the stereo effect. The experiment ceased after a few months.
In the late 1980s some operators, including capital-city ABC stations, elected to have C-QUAM AM stereo modulation implemented on their transmitters. The system made no noticeable difference on standard radios, and was quite effective on a compatible receiver, but AM is hardly high fidelity and consumer interest was minimal. Few of the (rather expensive) receivers were sold, and the networks abandoned the experiment without fanfare.

Frequency assignment[edit]

By convention, a broadcaster’s “spot on the dial” was originally defined in terms of wavelength (in metres), then from around 1940 increasingly by frequency, which was more precise, as all stations were by then crystal controlled to an accurate multiple of 5 KHz (or kilocycles per second in the terminology of the time).

A sufficiently accurate formula for converting wavelength to frequency is: f (in kHz) = 300,000 / λ (in metres)

In the early days the band was shared between “Class B” operators who operated on a defined wavelength and schedule, and licensed amateurs, who broadcast sporadically, and tried to transmit at a wavelength where risk of interference was minimized. In those days superheterodyne receivers were prohibitively expensive for most listeners; more common were crystal sets, regenerative or tuned radio frequency receivers, which had poor adjacent-channel rejection.
Around 1930 a number of stations changed their operating frequencies, apparently independently and no doubt for good, though not published, reasons.
A major program of frequency changes, imposed on broadcasters by the Post Master General, came into operation on 1 September 1935[16] following the licensing of another seven “B class” stations.[17] Some were to standardize all frequencies to a multiple of 10 kcs/sec (10 kHz); some to resolve technical problems such as interference from nearby transmitters (in some cases from New Zealand), and a few in an effort to aggregate “A class” stations to the low-frequency (long wavelength) end of the dial, though there remained many exceptions to this policy.

Another reshuffle occurred in June 1948, when 24 stations were subjected to a changed frequency allocation. The reason given was increased power output of various New Zealand transmitters.[18]

As a result of the Geneva Frequency Plan of 1975, on 23 November 1978 all broadcast stations moved to new frequencies on the basis of a 9 kHz “raster”, thereby freeing up the crowded AM band by some ten percent. In the following decades many broadcasters moved to the FM band, trading long distance reception for less expensive transmission equipment and clearer sound. Most ABC AM stations continued to operate in the face of a burgeoning variety of competing media (FM, DAB+, podcasts …) in the interests of universal coverage, but a great many commercial stations closed or turned to FM, and some transmitters were turned over to niche broadcasters (Radio for the Print Handicapped, ethnic radio, University radio, racing, News Radio). A later development was the provision of small AM repeater stations, both National and commercial, at a different frequency but bearing the same call sign as the primary transmitter.

This list does not include the many Australian Community radio Broadcasters except as they relate to National or Commercial broadcasters, and with a few exceptions ignores studios, programme material, personalities, networks, branding, slogans, and target audience.

Table of frequencies[edit]

Call sign Location Type
[19]
First
b’cast
pre-1935[20] post-1935[21] c.[19]
1950
kHz
pre-
1978
kHz
post-
1978
kHz
Current
kHz
/ Fate
Notes
λ
(m)
kHz λ
(m)
kHz
1SBS Canberra B 1440
2AD Armidale B 1936 278 1080 1130 1130 1134 1134
2AN Armidale A 0720 freq. change 760 to 720 kHz in 1976
Became 2RN Armidale
2AY Albury B 1930 203 1480 203 1480 1490 1494 1494 227 metres in 1930[22]
2BA Bega A 1956 0810 0810 810 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
2BE Sydney B 1924[23] 204 C 1928 326 m. in 1926[24] 442 m. 1926–1929;[25]
Australia’s first commercial station.[26]
2BE Bega B 1937 207 1450 1480 0765 B Callsign change to 2EC Bega
2BE Moruya B 1980s 1480 0765 F Callsign change to 2EC
2BE Narooma B 1980s 01584 B Repeater for mush zone between synch Bega & Moruya. Callsign change to 2EC
2BH Broken Hill B 1934 221 1360 226 1330 0660 0567 0567 In 1948 moved to 650 kHz.[27] Numerous frequency changes, perhaps the most of any Australian station.
2BL Sydney B 1925[28] 353 B Originally 2SB
Became National station with 2FC in 1932.[29]
2BL Sydney A 1932[29] 351 0855 405 0740 0740 0702 0702 Wavelength 353 m. 1925[30]–1931.
2BS Bathurst B 1937 200 1500 1500 1500 1503 F 2018 Converted to FM Dec 2018
2BY Byrock A 0657
2CA Canberra B 1931[31] 286 1050 286 1050 1050 1050 1053 1053
2CC Canberra B 1975[32] 1210 1206 1206
2CH Sydney B 1932[33] 248 1210 252 1190 1170 1170 1170 1170 1170 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
2CK Cessnock B 1938 205.5 1460 C 1952 studio destroyed by fire in 1952, and not replaced; transmitter equipment at Neath unaffected but closed[34] Became 2NM.
2CN Canberra A 1953 1540 1440 0666 1440 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75. Moved to 666 in 1983.
2CO Corowa A 1931 536 0560 448 0670 0670 0675 0675 ABC Regional
2CP Monaro A 1956 1602 1602
2CR Cumnock A 1935 545 0550 545 0550 0550 0550 0549 0549
2CS Coffs Harbour B 1980s 0 0 639 F
2CY Canberra A 1938 353 0850 0850 846 Changed callsign to 2RN Oct 1990
2DU Dubbo (Eulomogo B 1936 283 1060 1250 1250 1251 1251 [35]
2DU Cobar B 1984 0972 Repeater of 2DU Dubbo
2EA Sydney A 1386 1107 Allocated former 2UW frequency after 2UW converted to FM in early 1990s
2EA Wollongong A 1035 SBS Radio
2EA Wollongong A 1485 SBS Radio
2EA Newcastle A 1413 SBS Radio
2EC Bega B 0765 Changed callsign from 2BE 1980s
2EC Moruya B 0765 Changed callsign from 2BE 1980s, converted to FM 1990s
2EC Narooma B 1584 1584 Changed callsign from 2BE 1980s, originally repeater to cover Bega / Moruya synch mush zone
2EL Orange B after 1996 1089 was 2GZ
2EU Sydney B 1925 Callsign originally allocated but changed to 2UE prior to commencement
2FC Sydney B 1923 451 0665 was 1100 metres then 442 m. 1926[36]–1929.[25] Became ABC station 1932
2FC Sydney A 1932[29] 451 0665 492 0610 0610 0576 0576 Renamed 2RN Sydney in October 1990
2GB Sydney B 1926 316 0950 345 0870 870 870 0873 0873
2GF Grafton B 1933 246 1220 248 1210 1210 1210 1206 1206
2GL Glen Innes A c. 1954[37] 0819 0819
2GN Goulburn B 1931[32] 216 1390 216 1390 1380 1380 1368 1368 201.3 m. in 1930
1370 kHz after 1976?
2GZ Orange B 1935 303 0990 1089 B 1996 became 2EL after 1996
2HC Coffs Harbour B 1985 0639
2HD Newcastle B 1925 270 1110 263 1140 C 1941 initially 333 metres then 288 m. 1925–1931
closed 1941 with 4AT, 5KA, 5AU during World War II following allegations of fifth column activities.[38]
2HD Newcastle B 1945 1140 1140 1143 1143 reopened as ALP station[39]
2HR Singleton B 1937 441 0680 became 2NX, Newcastle c. 1955
2JJ Sydney A 1975 1540 1539 F 1980 Originally an experimental ABC station which later obtained permanent status.
2KA Katoomba B 1935[40] 259[41] 1160 0780 0783 C 1992 moved to 780 kHz in 1937. Wavelength was allocated 1935 for competitor 2KB[42] but never implemented.
2 km Kempsey A 1937 306 0980 306 0980 0980 Did this become a Labor Party broadcaster in 2000 ?[32]
2KO Newcastle B 1931[43] 212[44] 1415 213 1410 1410 1413 F 1990s Converted to FM in 1990s and changed callsign to 2KKO
2KP Kempsey A 1954 0680 0680 0684 0684
2KY Sydney B 1925 [45] 280 1070 294 1020 1020 1020 1017 1017 280 metres from 1925
2LF Young B 1938 224 1340 1350 1350 linked with 2WG
2LG Lithgow A 1949[46] 1370 1395
2LM Lismore B 1936 333 0900 0900 0900 replaced 2XN
2LT Lithgow B 1939 278 1080 1390 1395 0900 freq. 1370 kHz in 1976
900 kHz from 1984
2LV Inverell B 1936 366[47] 0820 B linked with 2AD. Became 2NZ in 1937.[48]
2MG Mudgee B 1938[32] 1450 1450 1449 1449
2MK Bathurst B 1925 260 1155 C 1931.[49] 275 metres in 1925.
MK = Mockler’s Store
2ML Murwillumbah
Terranora
A 1954 0720 0720 720 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
2MO Gunnedah B 1931[32] 227 1320 221 1360 1080 1080 1080 1080 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
2MV Moss Vale B 1930 246 1220 208 1440 1440 C 205.4 m. in 1930, 241.8 in 1931.
Closed c. 1931
2MW Murwillumbah B 1937 204 1470 0972 0972
2NA Newcastle A 1943 0820 1233 First ABC regional station.
2NB Broken Hill A 1948 0760 0999 0999
2NI Norfolk Island A 1952 0 1570 0 1566 01566
2NC Newcastle A 1930 241 1245 244 1230 1230 1233 1233
2NM Muswellbrook B c. 1955 205.5 1460 1460 1458 0981 replaced 2CK, moved to 981 in 1980
2NR Grafton (Lawrence) A 1936 429 0700 0700 0738 0738
2NU Tamworth (Manilla) A 1948 455 0660[50] 0650 0650 0648 0648
2NX Newcastle B c. 1955 221 1360 1360 1341 B previously 2HR Singleton.
2NZ Inverell B 1936[32] 256 1170 1190 1190 1188 1188 previously 2LV;[48] took over 2NZ licence issued for Narrabri in 1935 but not implemented.
Linked with 3GZ
2PB Newcastle A 1458 News Radio
2PB Sydney A 0630 News Radio
2PK Parkes B 1937[32] 1400 1400 1400 1404 [51]
2PM Kempsey B 0531
2PNN Wollongong A 1431 Radio National
2QN Deniliquin B 1935 208 1440 1520 1520 1521 1521
2RE Taree B 1953 192 1560 1560 1560 1557 1557
2RG Griffith B 1936[52] 204 1470 1070 0963
2RN Armidale A 0720 Radio National (was 2AN)
2RN Canberra A 0846 Previous callsign 2CY, carries Radio National programmes
2RN Goulburn A 1098 Radio National
2RN Newcastle A 1512 Radio National
2RN Nowra A 0603 Radio National
2RN Sydney A 0576 Radio National (was 2FC)
2RN Wilcannia A 1485 Radio National
2SB Sydney B 1923 C 1924 allocated 450 m. in late 1923 ; became 2BL in 1924[29] It is likely this broadcaster never went to air.
2SM Sydney B 1931 236 1270 236 1270 1270 1270 1269 1269
2ST Nowra B 1972[32] 0999
2TM Tamworth B 1935[53] 201 1490 231 1300 1300 1300 1287 1287 204.5 m. in 1935
2TR Taree A 0720 0760 0756 0756 freq. change 720 to 760 in 1976
2UE Sydney B 1925 293 1025 316 0950 0950 0950 0954 0954 Originally 2EU, it was Australia’s first commercial radio station,[54] and broadcast on 293 metres from at least 1926.
2UH Muswellbrook A 1044
2UW Sydney B 1925 267 1125 270 1110 1110 1110 1107 F 1994 263 metres in 1926.[24]
Became SBS Radio
2VM Moree B 1530 1530 1530 1530 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75.
2WA Wilcannia A 1584
2WG Wagga B 1932 260[55] 1150 261 1150 1150 1150 1152 1152 303 metres in 1932?
2WL Wollongong B pre-1931 209 1435 210 1430 1430 F
2WN Wollongong A 1959 F 1991
2WO Tamworth B 1934 A 2WO Tamworth was announced in 1934 but never eventuated.[56]
2XL Broken Hill B 1931 220 1365 C 1932[57]
2XL Cooma B 1937 341 0880 0920 0920 0918 0918
2XN Lismore B 1930 224 1340 224 1340 C 1936 replaced by 2LM
2XT Mobile station B 1925 ?? C 1927 operated from a NSWGR train. YT = Experimental train
3AK Melbourne (night service) B 1931 200 1500 200 1500 1500 1116 1116 branded as “SEN 1116”[32]
3AR Melbourne B 1924 3AR moved to 480 metres then 484[30] 1925–1931 then 492.
Became ABC station 1932
3AR Melbourne A c. 1928 492 0610 476 0630 0620 0621 0621 C new (1935) wavelength 476 m.; moved to 517 a few months later[58]
By 1937 it had reverted to 484; unchanged 1949.[59]
Renamed 3RN Melbourne in October 1990
3AW Melbourne B 1932[32] 210 1430 234 1280 1280 0693 0693 relay to 3CV 1955
3BA Ballarat B 1930[32] 231 1300 227 1320 1320 1320 1314 F 1998 call sign “Radiosport 927”[32]
3BO Bendigo B 1931 309 0970 309 0970 0960 F
3BT Ballarat B 1314 1314 repeater of 3UZ
3CR Melbourne B 1976 840 837 855 Commenced as limited commercial, then public, now community
3CS Colac B 1939 265 1130 1130 1130 1134 1134
3CV Charlton
Central Vic.
B 1938 B was 3MB
1470 kHz (204 m.) by 1949[60]
3CV Maryborough
Central Vic.
B 1944 1440 F was 3MB
1470 kHz (204 m.) by 1949
1440 kHz (208 m.) by 1953[60]
3DB Melbourne B 1927 254 1180 291 1030 1030 1030 1026 F 1990 became 3TT in 1988
3EA Melbourne A 1224 SBS Radio
3EE Melbourne B 1992 1278 1278 was 3XY
3EL Maryborough B 1935 1071 1071
3GG Warragul B 1989 0531 0531 was 3UL
3GI Longford near Sale A 1935 361 0830 0830 0830 0828 0828
3GL Geelong B 1930 214 1400 222 1350 1350 1350 1341 F 1990
3GV Sale B 2002 1242 was 3TR
3HA Hamilton B 1931 297 1010 297 1010 1000 0981 0981
3HS Horsham B 1933 219 1370 C 1936 taken over by 3DB and closed 1936 in favor of 3LK[61]
3KZ Melbourne B 1930 222 1350 254 1180 1180 1180 1179 F 1990 231 m. in 1930?[62]
3LK Lubeck[63] B 1933?[32] 1936?[64] 1090 1090 1089 B 1977 became 3WM in 1977
3LO Melbourne B 1924 375 0800 B 371 m. 1926[24]–1929[25]
3LO Melbourne A 1928 375 0800 390 0770 0770 0770 0774 0774 371 m. 1926[24]–1932[25] Relay to 2CO, 3GI, 3WL, 3WV in 1955
3MA Mildura B 1933[65] 333 0900 1470 1467 B 1360 kHz (221 m.) by 1949[59]
1470 kHz (204 m.) by 1953[60] later became 3ML.
3MB Birchip B 1936[64] C 1938 became 3CV[66]
3ML Mildura B 1467 was 3MA
3MP Rowville B 1976 1380 1377 1377
3MT Omeo A 0720
3NE Wangaratta B 1954 1600 1600 1566 1566
3PB Melbourne A 1026 News Radio
3RN Albury / Wodonga A 0990 Radio National
3RN Melbourne A 0621 Radio National
3RN Wangaratta A 0756 Radio National
3SH Swan Hill B 1931 1332
3SR Shepparton B 1937 238 1260 1260 1260 1260 Original station, F 1988. previous call sign 3WR.[67] 1260 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
3TR Gippsland
Sale
Trafalgar
Traralgon
B 1930 234 1280 242 1240 1240 1240 1242 F 2002 became 3GV
3UL Warragul B 1937 300[68] 1000 0880 0531 B became 3GG in 1989
3UZ Melbourne B 1925 322.5 0930 322.5[68] 0930 0930 0930 0927 0927 319 m. in 1926[24]
Now branded “Radio Sport National”
3WL Warrnambool A 1954[37] 191 1570 1570 1602 1602
3WM Horsham B 1977 1089 1089 was 3LK
3WR Wangaratta B 1925[69] C 1926? 303 m. in 1926[24]
3WR Wangaratta B 1930[70] 238 1260 reopened on 238 m.
Moved to Shepparton 1935.[67]
3WR Shepparton B 1935 238 1260 became 3SR in 1937[67]
3WV Horsham B c. 1936 322.5 0930 B became A Class station 1937
3WV Longford near Horsham A 1937 517 0580 0594 0594
3XY Melbourne B 1935 211 1420 1420 1278 B became 3EE
3YB Mobile B 1931 262 1145 248 1210 Broadcast for 4 hours per night for a three-week period from various Victorian towns which didn’t radio permanent stations.
3YB Warrnambool B 1937 248 1210 1210 0882 0882 Due to become FM station in 2018
3ZZ Melbourne A 1975 1160 C 1977 An experimental ABC station, broadcasting for only 2 years. Was Australia’s first ethnic and community radio station.[71]
4AA Mackay B 1026 Previous callsign 4MK
4AK Oakey B 1935[41] 246 1220 1220 1242 1242 studio in Toowoomba
4AM Mareeba B 1967[32] 0558
4AM Port Douglas B 1422 Repeater of 4AM Atherton Mareeba
4AT Atherton B 1939 306 0980 441 0680 B 1941 closed by Federal government following allegations of fifth column activity.[38]
Became ABC a month later.[72]
4AT Atherton A 1941[72] 441 0680 0600 0720 0720 720 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
4AY Ayr B 1934 306 0980 306 0980 0960 C c. 1970 Changed callsign to 4RR Jan 1987
HPON Ayr B c. 1990 0873 0873 Uses On-air Identifier of 4AY
4BC Brisbane B 1930 262 1145 268 1120 1120 1120 1116 1116 223[73] in 1930; 235 m. in 1930?[62] 252 in 1933!
4BH Brisbane B 1931 217 1380 217 1380 1390 0880 0882 0882 freq. moved 1390 to 880 in 1976
4BK Brisbane B 1930 233 1290 233 1290 1290 1290 1296 F 1990
4BU Bundaberg B 1935 203 1480 1330 1330 1332 1332
4CA Cairns B 1936 216[74] 1390 1010 0846 0846 Complaints of interference from 4MB[75] (both went from 1000 kHz to 1010 kHz) in 1948.[76]
4CC Biloela B 1985 930 927 0666 Repeater of 4CC Gladstone, initially synch with 4CD Gladstone, shifted to 666 with power increase
4CC Gladstone B 1985 0927 was 4CD Gladstone
4CC Rockhampton B 1985 1584 was 4CD Rockhampton
4CD Gladstone B 1970[32] B became 4CC Gladstone 1985
4CD Rockhampton B 1972 B became 4CC Rockhampton 1985
4CH Charleville A pre-1931 255 1175 0603 0603
4FC Maryborough / Hervey Bay B 1992 1161 TAB Radio
4GC Charters Towers B 1976[32] 0828 0828
4GC Hughenden B 0765 repeater of 4GC Charters Towers
4GM Gympie A 1953 1570 1570 1566 1566
4GR Toowoomba B 1925 300 1000 300 1000 0860 0860 0864 0864 294 metres in 1925, 1926[24]
4GY Gympie B 1941 222 1350 1350 0558 0558
4HI Dysart B 0945
4HI Emerald B 1981[32] 1143
4HI Moranbah / Nebo B 1215
4HU Hughenden A 1485
4IP Ipswich B 1935[41] 208 1440 1010 1010 1008 B became 4IO c. 1985, 4TAB in 1992
4JK Julia Creek A 0567
4KQ Brisbane B 1947 461.5 0650 0690 0690 0693 0693
4KZ Ingham B 1620
4KZ Innisfail B 1967[32] 0531
4KZ Karumba B 1611
4KZ Tully B 0693
4LG Longreach B 1936 1100 1100 1098 1098
4LM Mt Isa B 1961[32] 0666 0666
4LM Cloncurry B 0693 translator station
4MB Maryborough B 1932 283 1060 283 1060 1010 1160 1161 F 337 in 1926[24]
1160 kHz from 1953[77] Both 4CA and 4MB went from 1000 to 1010 in 1948.[76] 1160 kHz in 1964
Became RadioTAB
4MI Mt Isa A 1986 1080
4MK Mackay B 1931 252 1190 259 1160 1380 1026 1026 525 m. in 1930?[62] 1390 in 1948[76]
4MS Mossman A 0639 0639
4NA Nambour B 0830 0828 0828 0 freq move 940 to 830 kHz in 1976. Became 4SS
4PB Brisbane A 0936 News Radio
4PM Port Moresby A 221 1360 repeater for, then replaced by, 9PA[78]
4QA Mackay A 1951 0720 0756 0FM 1990s Converted to FM 1990s
4QB Pialba –
Dundowran
(Wide Bay)
A 1948 536 0560[76] 0910 0855 0855 Synchronised with 4QO Eidsvold for both original 910kHz operation and post 1978 current operation
4QD Emerald A 1548
4QG Brisbane A 1925 395 0760 375 0800 0790 C 385 m. 1926[24]–1929[25]
Founded by (Labor) Queensland Government, became ABC station 1932. Renamed 4RN Brisbane in October 1990
4QL Longreach A 1947 435 0690 0540 0540 0540 0540 540 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
4QN Townsville (Clevedon) A 1936 500 0600 0630 0630 0630 0630 630 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
4QO Eidsvold A 1965 0855 0855 Synchronised with 4QB Pialba for both original 910kHz operation and post 1978 current operation
4QR Brisbane A 1938 319 0940[76] 0590 0612 0612
4QS Darling Downs
Dalby
Toowoomba
A 0750 0750 0747 0747
4QW Roma / St. George A 0711
4QY Cairns A 1950 0940 0801 0801
4RK Rockhampton A 1930[62] 330 0910 330 0910 0840 0840 0837 0837
4RN Brisbane A 0792 Radio National
4RN Rockhampton B 1926 B Class licence issued to Qld Gov, intended to be a repeater of 4QG but never implemented
4RO Rockhampton B 1932 225 1340 226 1330 1000 0990 0990 990 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
4RR Townsville B 1987 0 0FM 1990s Previous callsign 4AY
4SB Kingaroy B 1938 1060 1071 1071 call sign 1071AM[32]
4SO Southport A 1952 1590 1590 1593 F 1989
4SS Nambour B 0828 F 1990s Previous callsign was 4NA
4TAB Brisbane B 1992 1008 was 4IP then 4IO c. 1985
4TI Thursday Island
(Torres Strait)
A 1062 1062
4TO Townsville B 1931 256 1170 256 1170 0780 0780 0774 F 2005
4TOO Townsville B 2005 256 1170 256 1170 0780 0780 0774 C 2015 Former tech facilities of 4TO AM licensed as retransmission, following 4TO FM conversion ca 2005
4VL Charleville B 1936 0920 0920 0918 0918
4VL Cunnamulla B 1584
4WK Toowoomba B 1359 repeater of 4WK Warwick
4WK Warwick B 1935 333 0900 333[79] 0900 0880 0963 0963 204.5 m. in 1935
4WP Weipa A 1044 1044
4ZR Roma / St George B 1937 1480 1480 1476 1476
5AA Adelaide B 1976 1390 1390 1386 1395
5AB Adelaide B 1924 C 1924 340 m (880 kHz); poss. became 5CL[80]
5AD Adelaide B 1930 229 1310 229 1310 1310 1323 C became 5DN, then relinquished
5AL Alice Springs A 1948 196 1530 B became 8AL
5AN Adelaide A 1937 337 0890 0890 0890 0891 0891
5AU Port Augusta B 1938 214 1400 closed with parent station 5KA 1941 after allegations of fifth column activity
5AU Port Augusta B 1943[81] 214 1400 1044 1242 1450 kHz in 1976
5CC Port Lincoln B 1985[32] 0765 0765
5CK Crystal Brook A 1932 472 0635 469 0640 0640 0640 0639 0639
5CL Adelaide B 1924 B poss. succeeded 5AB.
420 metres[82] or 375 metres then 395 m. from 1925[30] Became ABC station 1932.
5CL Adelaide A 411 0730 411 0730 0730 0730 0729 B became 5RN Adelaide in October 1990
5CS Port Pirie B 1044 1044 associated with 5AA
5DN Adelaide B 1925 313 0960 313 0960 0972 B 313 m. in 1926[24]
became 5PB News Radio
5DR Darwin A 1947 1500 B Changed callsign to 8DR in 1960
5KA Adelaide B 1927 250 1200 250 1200 C 1941 closed 1941 with its repeater 5AU after allegations of fifth column activity
5KA Adelaide B 1943[81] 1200 1200 1197 B 1990 became 5RPH
5LC Leigh Creek A 1971[83] 1602 1602
5LN Port Lincoln A 1950[83] 1530 1485 1485
5MG Mount Gambier North A 1955 1161? 1476
5MU Murray Bridge B 1934 207 1450 1460 1125 1125
5MV Berri A 1957 1590 1590 1593 1062 moved to 1305 in 1988; 1062 in 1996.
5PA Penola A 1956 moved to Naracoorte c. 1970
5PA Naracoorte A c. 1970 1161 1161
5PB Adelaide A 0972 News Radio. Was 5DN
5PI Crystal Brook B 288 1040 288 1040 1040 1040 1044 became 5CS in 1987.[83]
5RM Renmark B 1935 319 0940 353 0850 0800 0800 0801 0801
5RN Adelaide A 0729 Radio National. Was 5CL
5RN Riverland (Berri)[83] A 1305 Radio National
5SE Mount Gambier B 1937 224 1340 1370 0963 0963
5SY Streaky Bay A 1977[83] 0693 0693
5UV Adelaide C 1970s[83] 530 0531 0F 1990s Initially licensed under WT Act, then Public, then Community, converted to FM 1990s
5WM Woomera A 1953 1580 1580 1584 1584
6ABCRN Christmas Island A 1422 Radio National
6AL Albany A 1956 0630
6AM Northam B 1934 275 1090 306 0980 0980 0864 0864
6BAY Geraldton B 1512
6BAY Morawa B 1512 repeater of 6BAY Geraldton
6BE Broome A 1990 0675
6BR Bridgetown A 1044
6BS Bunbury (Busselton) A 0684
6BY Bunbury B 1933 306 0980 259 1160 C 1935 Call sign revived as 6BY Bridgetown
6BY Bridgetown B 1953 0900 0900 900 900 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75.
6CA Carnarvon A 0846
6CI Collie B 1947 1340 1134 B became 6TZ Collie
6DB Derby A 0873
6DL Dalwallinu A 0531
6ED Esperance A 0837
6EL Bunbury B 2000 0621 Same frequency used by network’s stations at Busselton, Capel, Collie, Donnybrook
6FMS Exmouth B 0747
6GE Geraldton B 1010 1010 1008 F 1991
6GF Kalgoorlie A 1935 417 0720 0720 0720 0648
6GL Perth B 1988 C 1991 1088 kHz; merged with 6IX
6GN Geraldton A 0830 0830 0828 0828
6IX Perth B 1933 204 1470 242 1240 1240 1080 1080 1080 1130 in 1943[84] 1080 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75.
6KA Karratha B 1978 1260
6KG Kalgoorlie B 1931 246 1220 248 1210 1210 0981 246 m. in 1933
6KP Karratha A 0702
6KW Kununurra A 0819
6KY Perth B 1941 210 1430 1320 1206 F 1991 1430 kHz in 1941; 1320 in 1943[84]
6LN Carnarvon B 1983 0666
6MD Merredin B 1941 1100 1100 1098 1098
6MJ Manjimup A 0738
6ML Perth B 1930[85] 297[86] 1010 265 1130 C 1943 Commenced 31 Mar 1930 on 1010kHz; 29 Jul 1931 changed to 1135kHz (frequency selected by listeners from two choices offered by PMGD); 1 Sep 1935 changed to 1130kHz; Closed 1943 allegedly due WW2 staff losses; 6IX subsequently allocated former 6ML frequency 1130kHz
6MM Mandurah B 1988[32] 1116
6MN Newman A 0567
6NA Narrogin B 1951 0920 0920 0918 0918
6NM Northam A c. 1954[37] 1215
6NW Port Hedland B 1977 1026 1026
6PB Bunbury (Busselton) A 1152 News Radio.
6PB Perth A 0585 News Radio
6PH Port Hedland A 0603
6PM Perth B 1937 1130 1000 0990 F 1990 [87] 1320 to 1240 kHz in 1943[84] 990 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75.
6PN Pannawonica A 0567
6PR Perth B 1931 341 0880 341 0880 0880 0880 0882 0882
6PU Paraburdoo A 0567
6RN Busselton A 1296 Radio National
6RN Dalwallinu A 0612 Radio National
6RN Perth A 0810 Radio National
6RN Wagin A 1296 Radio National
6SAT Paraburdoo B 0765
6SAT Tom Price B 0765
6SE Esperance B 1982? 2000? 0747 0747
6TP Tom Price A 0567
6TZ Bunbury B 1939 0960 0960 0963 0963
6TZ Busselton B 1995 0756
6TZ Collie B 1134 was 6CI Collie
6VA Albany B 1956 780 783 0783
6WA Wagin (Minding) A 1936 0560 0560 0558 0558
6WB Katanning B 1936 1070 1070 1071 1071
6WF Perth (Wanneroo) B 1924 B 1250 m. (240 kHz) in 1926[24]
Became ABC station 1932
6WF Perth (Wanneroo) A 1929 435 0690 435 0690 0690 0690 0720 0720 moved to 690 kHz in 1929 with change of ownership.[88] 720 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75.
6WH Wyndham A 1017
6WN Perth A 0810 Became 6RN Perth in October 1990
6XM Exmouth A 1188
7AD Devonport B 1932 0900 0900 0900 F 2019 Took over 7UV in 1940; 900 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75. converted to FM Mar 2019
7BU Burnie B 1935 221 1360 216 1390 0560 0560 0558 0F 2019 Converted to FM Mar 2019
7DY Derby B 1938[89] 1450 B 1954 became 7SD, Scottsdale[37]
7EX Launceston B 1938[90] 300 1000 1000 1010 1008 F 2008 Converted to FM 2008 and changed callsign to 7EXX
HPON Launceston H 2009? 1008 1008 TAB HPON, licence awarded after 7EX AM-FM conversion, uses old 7EX tech facilities
7FG Fingal A 1160 1161 1161 opened after 1976
7HO Hobart B 1930 337 0890 366 0820 0860 0860 0864 F 1990 349 metres in 1937. Became 7RPH
7HT Hobart B 1936 278 1080 1080 1080 1080 F 1998 1080 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
7LA Launceston B 1930 273 1100 273 1100 1100 1098 1098 F 1998 started as amateur station 7BN[91]
became TAB station
7NT Kelso near Launceston A 1935[92] 400 0750 400 0750 0710 0710 0711 F 2006 assertion 7NT founded 1928[91] could not be verified
7PB Hobart A 0747 News Radio
7QN Queenstown A 1954[37] 556 0540 0540 0630 F 1991 630 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
7QT Queenstown B 0720 0837 became 7XS in 1998
7RN Hobart B 1991 was 7ZL
7RPH Hobart B 1990 0864 was 7HO
7SD Scottsdale B 1954 1450 0540[32] 0540 transferred from 7DY, Derby[37], 540 sits in both 10kHz & 9kHz rasters, therefore no change for GE75
7SH St Helens A 1570 1584 1584 opened after 1976
7UV Ulverstone B 1932[93] 205.5 1460 205.5 1460 B became 7AD Devonport in 1940
7XS Queenstown B 1937 0837 0837 took over 7QT in 1998
7ZL Hobart B 1926 B 1927 417 metres in 1926[24]
7ZL Hobart A 1932[91] 517 0580 508 0590 0600 C 1991 461 m. in 1937 http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/25400495 became 7RN Hobart in October 1990
7ZR Hobart A 1938 0940
8AL Alice Springs A 1960 1530 1380 0783 0783 began as 5AL on 1530 kHz; moved to 1380 kHz in 1976
8DR Darwin A 1960 0657 F 1989 previously 5DR on 1500 kHz
8DN Darwin B 1240 1240 1242 C 1992
8GO Nhulunbuy A 0990
8HA Alice Springs B 1971 0900 0900
8JB Jabiru A 0747 0747
8KN Katherine A 0639 F 1991
8RN Darwin A 0657
8RN Katherine A 0639 0639
8RN Tennant Creek A 0684 0684
8TC Tennant Creek A 0684 F 1991
9PA Port Moresby A 1946 1250 Founded by Aust. and US Army 1944. Replaced 4PM[78] For other wartime call signs see below.
Legend
Type A = Government funded (including SBS radio). B = self funded (now called “commercial” but historic term retained here)
Fate Frequency if currently active, otherwise B = Broadcasts still occurring from same location and frequency but call sign changed; C = Licence cancelled or lapsed (may be followed by date); F = Moved to FM band (may be followed by date).

Overseas broadcasters during World War II[edit]

A large number of AM radio stations were established by Australian and US forces in bases to the north of Australia in the years 1943–1946, of which around 20 were operated by the Australian Army Amenities Service. This is an incomplete list of those overseas broadcasters whose callsign commenced with “9”. 9AT in Kure, Japan operated during the post-war occupation period.[94][95]

Call sign Base Country Frequency
kHz[96]
Opened Closed Notes
9A? Weston Borneo 1945 east of Labuan Island on Brunei Bay
9AA Port Moresby Papua New Guinea This call sign used briefly, then reverted to 9PA
9AB Lae[97] Papua New Guinea 1070/1340 !945
9AC Torokina[98] Papua New Guinea 1280 1945 1946
9AD Aitape Papua New Guinea 1140/1180 1945
9AD Morotai Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) 1180/1440
9AE Jacquinot Papua New Guinea 1370/1425
9AE Rabaul Papua New Guinea 1310/1370/1375/1425 1945
9AF Tarakan Borneo 1945
9AF Labuan Borneo 960/1340 1945
9AG Balikpapan Borneo 960/1240/1340/1360
9AJ Bosley Field[99] Solomon Islands 960
9AJ Wewak Papua New Guinea 960/980/1030 1945
9AL Rabaul Papua New Guinea 1945
9AL Fauro Island Solomon Islands 1030 1945
9AO Rabaul Papua New Guinea 980
9AO Jesselton Sabah 980 1946 1946 now Kota Kinabalu
9AP Labuan Borneo
9AT Kure Japan 1470 1946 joint broadcast with US Army station WLKS
9PA Port Moresby[100] Papua New Guinea 1250 1944 1946 for a time 9AA

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. “Radio Topics”. The Telegraph (Brisbane) (16,615): p. 6. 3 March 1926. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article179643994. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  2. “Radio News”. The Examiner (Tasmania) LXXXII (128): p. 8. 29 May 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article51311335. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  3. “Broadcasting”. The Sydney Morning Herald (26,906): p. 6. 31 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16143737. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  4. “Wireless”. The Sydney Morning Herald (27,017): p. 8. 7 August 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16159535. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  5. “The Broadcasting Station”. The Daily Telegraph (Launceston, Tasmania) XLIV (53): p. 6. 1 March 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article153569482. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  6. “Requirements of Regulations”. The News (Adelaide) IV (460): p. 10. 13 January 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129826288. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  7. “Wireless News”. The News (Adelaide) IV (497): p. 11. 25 February 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article129831726. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  8. “H.C.L. of Wireless Concerts”. Truth (Sydney) (1860): p. 8. 30 August 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article168717007. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  9. ab “Radio”. Sydney Mail XLI (1058): p. 33. 6 July 1932. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article166224225. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  10. “TV Licences Compulsory”. The Canberra Times 36 (19,236): p. 10. 28 May 1962. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article130576214. Retrieved 5 November 2017. 
  11. Not to be confused with “Class A and Class B” amplification, technical terms generally referring to audio amplifiers, nor to the US classification of broadcast transmitters.
  12. “Amateurs Have Played Big Part In Broadcasting”. The Queenslander: p. 17. 27 July 1938. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article18906204. Retrieved 22 November 2017. 
  13. “Broadcasting”. The Sydney Morning Herald (28,559): p. 10. 17 July 1929. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16552926. Retrieved 22 November 2017. 
  14. “Broadcasting”. The Australasian (Victoria) CXXVII (4,203): p. 10. 27 July 1929. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article141396144. Retrieved 22 November 2017. 
  15. “Broadcasting”. The Sydney Morning Herald (31,132): p. 12. 13 October 1937. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17416110. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  16. “New and Old Wavelengths”. Singleton Argus (New South Wales): p. 2. 2 September 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article81711709. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  17. “Wave-length Changes Announced”. The Land (New South Wales) (1237): p. 27. 1 March 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article116277711. Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  18. “New Frequency For 2NA”. Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (New South Wales) (22,360): p. 6. 2 June 1948. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134323957. Retrieved 12 November 2017. 
  19. ab “List of Stations”. Barrier Daily Truth (New South Wales) XLVII (14,566): p. 3. 11 November 1954. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article139968364. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  20. “Important To Listeners-In”. The Wooroora Producer (South Australia) XIV (378): p. 4. 27 June 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article207152150. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  21. “Broadcasting Wave Lengths”. Macleay Argus (New South Wales) (4696): p. 7. 17 September 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article234012106. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  22. “Eight New “B” Stations”. The Sydney Morning Herald (28,950): p. 8. 17 October 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16723199. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  23. “Broadcasting; a Review of its Growth”. The Sydney Morning Herald (29,481): p. 8. 30 June 1932. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16893891. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  24. abcdefghijkl “Stations and Wave Lengths”. The Daily News (Perth) (Western Australia) XLV (15,883): p. 6. 22 March 1926. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article83400638. Retrieved 31 October 2017. 
  25. abcde “Broadcasting”. The Maitland Daily Mercury (New South Wales) (18,118): p. 3. 1 May 1929. http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/page/14699690. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  26. “First Radio Voice Was Dots, Dashes”. Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (New South Wales) (22,631): p. 5. 15 April 1949. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article134347086. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  27. “2BH New WaveLength”. The Barrier Miner (New South Wales) LXI (17,635): p. 6. 28 August 1948. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article48571212. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  28. “Wireless”. The Sydney Morning Herald (27,613): p. 13. 6 July 1926. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16303618. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  29. abcd “Wireless”. The Sydney Morning Herald (29,906): p. 9. 8 November 1933. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17022435. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  30. abc “Wireless Broadcasting”. The Argus (Melbourne) (24,594): p. 13. 5 June 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2123820. Retrieved 3 November 2017. 
  31. “The Rest of the News”. The Evening News (Sydney) (19824): p. 6. 9 January 1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article115398818. Retrieved 9 November 2017. 
  32. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvw “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. https://web.archive.org/web/20160303173315/http://acma.gov.au/webwr/_assets/main/lib100052/lic022_commercial_radio_broadcasting_licences.pdf. Retrieved 2017-11-18. 
  33. “Broadcasting”. Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate (New South Wales) (17,261): p. 7. 9 February 1932. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article136863453. Retrieved 9 November 2017. 
  34. “Broadcasts Go On Despite Fire”. Dungog Chronicle : Durham and Gloucester Advertiser (New South Wales): p. 3. 28 June 1952. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article140846910. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  35. “2DU further information”. http://www.2du.com.au/2du/2du-further-information.html. 
  36. “Wireless & Radio”. The Sun (Sydney) (New South Wales) (4947): p. 8. 14 September 1926. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article222728902. Retrieved 31 October 2017. 
  37. abcdef “New Stations in Two States”. The Age (Melbourne) (31,006): p. 1. 17 September 1954. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article205398513. Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  38. ab “Four Broadcasting Stations Put Off The Air”. The Morning Bulletin (Queensland) (23,127): p. 7. 10 January 1941. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article56191096. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  39. “2HD is On the Air Again”. The Newcastle Sun (New South Wales) (8442): p. 6. 16 January 1945. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article156594250. Retrieved 2 December 2017. 
  40. “2KA Opens Tonight”. The Katoomba Daily (New South Wales) 15 (141): p. 3. 7 September 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article193896822. Retrieved 9 November 2017. 
  41. abc “Radio Topics”. The Sunday Mail (Brisbane) (Queensland) (280): p. 9. 1 September 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article97854589. Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  42. “Wireless”. The Sydney Morning Herald (30,306): p. 8. 20 February 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17171963. Retrieved 3 November 2017. 
  43. “New Transmitting Equipment Ensures Finest Reception”. The Newcastle Sun (New South Wales) (11,113): p. 9. 31 December 1953. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article161502536. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  44. “New Broadcasting Station”. The Newcastle Sun (New South Wales) (4257): p. 2. 1 August 1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article164257254. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  45. “FIRST LABOR WIRELESS STATION OPENED”. The Labor Daily (New South Wales, Australia) (556): p. 5. 2 November 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article238117259. Retrieved 21 March 2019. 
  46. “Brevities”. Lithgow Mercury (New South Wales): p. 2. 26 September 1949. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article220845803. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  47. “Inverell Station to Get New Wavelength”. Glen Innes Examiner (New South Wales) 11 (1549): p. 4. 18 February 1936. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article178311320. Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  48. ab “New Broadcasting Station”. The Inverell Times (New South Wales): p. 4. 20 January 1937. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article185380865. Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  49. “Forced Down”. The National Advocate (New South Wales): p. 2. 31 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article159772740. Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  50. “New A.B.C. Station”. The Newcastle Sun (New South Wales) (9625): p. 4. 5 November 1948. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158262309. Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  51. “History of 1404 2PK”. http://rokfm2pk.wixsite.com/14042pk/our-history. 
  52. “New Broadcasting Station”. The Sydney Morning Herald (30,783): p. 7. 31 August 1936. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17265659. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  53. “Wool Reports”. North West Champion (New South Wales) 23 (15): p. 6. 28 February 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article178690555. Retrieved 9 November 2017. 
  54. “2UE’s Twenty-Fifth anniversary”. The Sun (Sydney) (12,478): p. 17. 24 January 1950. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article230700712. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  55. “Wagga Broadcasting Station”. Daily Advertiser (Wagga) (New South Wales): p. 2. 30 June 1932. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article143168708. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  56. “Radio Notes”. The Catholic Press (New South Wales) (2025): p. 12. 8 November 1934. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article104372743. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  57. “2XL to Close”. The Barrier Miner (New South Wales) XLV (13,369): p. 2. 13 April 1932. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article46648201. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  58. “3AR Wave Length Changed”. Camperdown Chronicle (Victoria) LIX (6640): p. 2. 15 October 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article32174956. Retrieved 3 November 2017. 
  59. ab “Radio Station Wavelengths”. The Age (Melbourne) (29341): p. 1. 12 May 1949. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206071645. Retrieved 4 November 2017.  List of Victorian stations
  60. abc “Australian Radio Wavelengths”. The Age (Melbourne) (30,679): p. 1. 28 August 1953. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206455778. Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  61. “3DB Takes Over Horsham Wireless Station”. The Horsham Times (Victoria) (8028): p. 2. 25 December 1936. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article74613642. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  62. abcd “Twelve New Stations”. The Armidale Express and New England General Advertiser (New South Wales) (133): p. 8. 11 July 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article194862427. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  63. Lubeck is situated between Murtoa and Glenorchy
  64. ab “Radio Stations Are Growing Apace”. The Sun (Sydney) (8529): p. 38. 6 May 1937. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229410267. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  65. “Mildura Wireless Station”. The Argus (Melbourne) (27,074): p. 3. 26 May 1933. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4738289. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  66. “Advertising”. The Argus (Melbourne) (28,582): p. 18. 31 March 1938. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11154661. Retrieved 8 December 2017. 
  67. abc Jenny Coates. “Radio 3WR”. http://conversationswithgrandma.com.au/2016/10/04/radio-3wr/. 
  68. ab “Advertising”. The Argus (Melbourne) (28,220): p. 35. 30 January 1937. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article11963855. Retrieved 2 November 2017.  “Argus” network; 3YB previously designated a “mobile station” on 283 m.
  69. “Wireless”. Shepparton Advertiser (Victoria) (4326): p. 3. 13 March 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article173260263. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  70. “New Broadcasting Station.”. The Age (Melbourne) (23,621): p. 9. 23 December 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article203273935. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  71. Dugdale, Joan, Radio Power: Access Radio 3ZZ. Hyland House, Melbourne 1979
  72. ab “4AT Resumes”. Cairns Post (Queensland) (12,148): p. 4. 27 January 1941. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42271567. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  73. “A Successful Test”. The Daily Standard (Queensland) (5586): p. 4. 14 August 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article178919721. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  74. “General News”. Maryborough Chronicle, Wide Bay and Burnett Advertiser (Queensland) (20,436): p. 6. 19 May 1936. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article158748712. Retrieved 3 November 2017.  90th broadcast station in Australia
  75. “Radio Wavelengths”. Cairns Post (Queensland) (14,446): p. 4. 23 June 1948. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42588360. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  76. abcde “11 Radio Stations Switched”. The Courier-Mail (Brisbane) (3593): p. 1. 1 June 1948. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article49661062. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  77. “New 4MB Frequency”. Maryborough Chronicle (Queensland) (25,429): p. 4. 31 August 1953. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article150515986. Retrieved 1 November 2017. 
  78. ab Adrian Peterson. “9PA Port Moresby”. http://www.radioheritage.net/story165.asp. 
  79. “Warwick Wireless Station”. The Daily Examiner (New South Wales) 26 (8454): p. 4. 31 August 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article194303157. Retrieved 31 October 2017. 
  80. “AB’s Activities”. The Register (Adelaide) LXXXIX (26,162): p. 4. 1 November 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article64063146. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  81. ab “Licences for Radio Stations”. The Advertiser (Adelaide) LXXXV (26437): p. 3. 29 June 1943. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article48758377. Retrieved 2 December 2017. 
  82. “New Broadcasting Stations”. The Examiner (Tasmania) LXXXII (302): p. 6. 18 December 1924. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226442872. Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  83. abcdef Lloyd Butler. “Amplitude Modulated (AM) Broadcast Stations in South Australia”. http://users.tpg.com.au/users/ldbutler/Broadcast_Station_History.htm. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  84. abc “Change of Wave Lengths”. Westralian Worker (Western Australia) (1829): p. 1. 26 November 1943. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article148423253. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  85. “NEW BROADCAST STATION.”. The West Australian (Western Australia) XLVI, (8,657): p. 14. 20 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31068384. Retrieved 20 March 2019. 
  86. “New Wireless Station in Perth”. The Register News-Pictorial (South Australia) XCV (27,640): p. 15. 18 March 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article53500481. Retrieved 30 October 2017. 
  87. “6PM Reunion”. WA TV History. http://watvhistory.com/2010/04/radio-6pm-reunion/. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  88. “State Broadcasting.”. Great Southern Herald (Western Australia) XXVII (2,894): p. 7. 3 August 1929. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article147413122. Retrieved 24 November 2017. 
  89. “Derby Wireless Station”. The Advocate (Tasmania): p. 6. 24 January 1938. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article68401797. Retrieved 2 December 2017. 
  90. “Official Opening of Station 7EX”. The Examiner (Tasmania) XCVI (282): p. 6. 7 February 1938. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article52190881. Retrieved 2 December 2017. 
  91. abc Alison Alexander. “Companion to Tasmanian history: Radio”. Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies. http://www.utas.edu.au/library/companion_to_tasmanian_history/R/Radio.htm. 
  92. “Opening of 7NT”. The Advocate (Tasmania): p. 8. 2 August 1935. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article86571001. Retrieved 2 December 2017. 
  93. “7UV Ulverstone”. The Advocate (Tasmania): p. 2. 6 August 1932. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article67963800. Retrieved 25 November 2017. 
  94. Major Jim Gordon, Museum Manager, Royal Australian Signals Museum
  95. Carty, Bruce, On the Air: Australian Radio History, privately published Gosford N.S.W., 2013
  96. cite web|url=http://www.radioheritage.net/story69.asp%7Ctitle=Australian World War II Pacific Radio |publisher=Radio Heritage Foundation|access-date=6 January 2018
  97. “Lae, New Guinea”. Australian War Memorial. https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/099444/?image=1. Retrieved 6 January 2018.  The photo depicts J. B. “Ben” Chifley addressing the troops.
  98. “Torokina, Bougainville, Solomon Islands”. Australian War Memorial. https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C76300. Retrieved 6 January 2018.  The soldier on far right, Robert “Bob” Caldicott, had a long career with ABC radio and television, Adelaide.
  99. “Bosley Field, Bougainville, Solomon Islands”. Australian War Memorial. https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C79503. Retrieved 6 January 2018. 
  100. “Port Moresby”. Australian War Memorial. https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C47954. Retrieved 6 January 2018. 

External links[edit]

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *