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Megauniversity/Anadolu University – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Map of Turkey with uni.jpg


Anadolu College is likely one of the nationwide universities in Turkey which locates in Eskişehir. The college has established in November 6, 1958 and began distance schooling service in 1982. They home 12 colleges, 7 colleges, four vocational colleges, 9 institutes (four graduate colleges, 5 institutes) and 28 analysis facilities and items and maintain with roughly 1,075,200 college students. Distance Schooling System of Anadolu College has Three colleges with 1,050, 000 college students. 40 % of scholars who attend their schooling are those that attend Anadolu College, Now Anadolu College is taken into account one of many ten mega-universities of the world which offer the space schooling system.

Turkey Profile[edit]

Normal Background

Based on the Survey by OECD (2005), there are 72,064,000 folks in Turkey. As ethnic composition, Turkish dominates primarily. Within the South-East area, many Kurdish reside there and there’s additionally Armenian Greek and Jew, even these numbers are small. Turkey is a predominantly Muslim nation (Sunnah). As different religions, Jewish faith, Greek orthodox Church and Armenia orthodox Church are raised.

Despite an Islamic nation, Turkey tries to company with European international locations and set the objective to be a signatory of EU. Now, Turkey is an accession nation of EU, and a signatory of NATO, OECD, OSCE.

GDP within the nation is now 7710.832 and GDP Progress is 7.3802 % in 2005(from OECD Survey). Turkey retains financial development nevertheless, nonetheless the labor surroundings isn’t totally developed. For instance, employment price for males 68.183% and that for girls is 23.6941% (OECD, 2005). As you possibly can see from this information, the gender distinction continues to be critical issues.

(The knowledge from OECD website [1]and the Ministry of Japanese International Affairs(Japanese websites)[2])


Infrastructure of Schooling isn’t totally developed even major faculty stage. Since 1997, institution of the Fundamental Schooling Regulation, enrollment figures for Major faculty are growing (1,000,000 btw 1991-1996), nevertheless the speed isn’t modified as a result of growing of inhabitants itself (10% nonetheless, not enroll for major schooling). As to the secondary schooling stage, the scenario is extra critical. As well as, the entry for schooling is differ amongst gender, social-economic standing and areas (70 % who couldn’t enroll major schooling is feminine) Particularly, the east and southeast space on which poor folks focus, the entry to schooling is restricted.

almost about the tertialy schooling, in educational yr 2001-2002, there have been 775,132 new enrollment for full-time bachelor’s college students, on the identical time there have been 623,465 new enrollment for Distance schooling (The Council of Greater Schooling, 2003). The ratio of the full variety of college students in tertialy schooling to age 18-21 inhabitants is just 33 % (The Council of Greater Schooling, 2003). In tertialy schooling, the demand is considerably over the availability.

The standard of schooling isn’t assured. Generally, academic stage in Turkey is worse than different EU nations (for instance solely 26 % of 15-years in Turkey have stage Three on OECD’s 6 stage proficiency scale for program-solving abilities—-in EU,it’s 60%). The standard of schooling is definitely incumbent upon the place college students reside. Skilled academics should not out there sufficient in distant areas.

For turning into a signatory of EU, the schooling reform is urged. For instance, elevating complementation price of major faculty and assuring high quality of Schooling like, creating Fashionable Curriculum so on.

(For extra particulars, go to The World Financial institution-countries-Turkey [3] and The Council of Greater Schooling in Turkey [4])

Anadolu College Profile[edit]

Historical past of Distance Schooling[edit]

1983 Established 12 months

  • Distance Schooling System was established to resolve the scarcity of upper schooling. First, it began as offering college students with enterprise and financial bachelor diploma packages. 29,500 college students enrolled at the moment.

1983-1992 Widen Applications and Areas

  • Open Schooling College had grow to be providing a level completion packages for academics (Ministry of Schooling), affiliate diploma packages in midwifery, nursing (Ministry of Well being) well being technicians, veterinary sciences and agriculture (Ministry of Agriculture). Companies have been additionally disseminated for Turkish residents dwelling in Western Europe and The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

1993 E-certification Applications have been Began

  • The College of Enterprise and Economics have been organized and four years bachelor’s diploma packages have been offered.

  • The related diploma packages, certification packages and diploma completion packages have been offered by Open Schooling College.

1996 Produce Examination System

1998 Reformation 12 months

  • setting the objective that each one of educational items can be found in Distance Schooling System

  • cultivating new probabilities for Lifelong studying

  • reforming all three colleges, system, programs and contents —tring to combine texts with TV and Web packages. CD-ROMs have been developed.

  • enhancing interplay between college students and group, for instance, broadcasting “Information type our College.

1999 Collaborate with Exterior Establishments

  • Video convention system turned the parts of DE and collaboration with different universities has begun although this method through terrestrial and satellite tv for pc networks.

  • offering put together programs for exams serves for college kids through internets, taped and reside packages on TRT four broadcasting.

  • Interactive academic system was provided in varied methods.

  • Early childhood and English educating Applications ware based by collaborating with the Ministry of Turkish Schooling

2001-2002 Improve Flexibility

  • Data administration affiliate diploma have been offered through Web as on-line programs.

  • Second College as a second academic alternative have been began.

  • Transitions utility have been began by collaborating with Turkish Schooling board

2003-2004 Sratrt E-TV Service

2005-2006 Begin diploma completion packages through Distance Schooling

(For extra particulars, go to Anadolu College-open schooling at a glance-Open Eduation System [5])

On this approach, with overlooking the historical past of distance schooling in Anadolu College, it’s concludes that 1) Anadolu continues to peruse the flexibleness in schooling 2) Anadolu actively tries to combine new know-how into the present system 3) Anadolu is influenced by academic calls for of nationwide ministries and develops the packages with them.


Anadolu College possesses 2 campuses in Eskişehir and 81 bureaus all through 83 provinces in Turkey.

Anadolu College Distance Schooling System has Three amenities, College of Economics, Enterprise Administration and Open Schooling.

The College of Economics

The College of Enterprise

The College of Open Schooling

  • related diploma packages

  • e-certificate packages(no entrance examination is required.)

  • diploma completion packages

  • West Europe Applications(A few of programs can be found for these college students who reside in exterior Turkey, West Europe.)

Collaborating with different college & establishments

  • blended diploma packages in data administration and English language educating.

  • Internet-based MBA is offered along with the college of Economics and Administrative Sciences and Graduate Research Applications in Empire State School, State College in New York.

  • On-line Grasp Issues in Hospitality administration and educating developmentally disabled kids.

Scholar Demography[edit]

Now, there are 1,050, 000 Distance Schooling college students. Based on Simon et al (2003), the overwhelming majority of the scholars enrolled in distance schooling system are working adults with full- or part-time jobs.

Although Anadolu College presents the WEP for different nations in West Europe, it’s guessed that worldwide college students are comparatively few. From the survey by The Council of Greater Schooling (2003), the full variety of larger schooling college students in 2001 is 1,568,384 and amongst these, solely 16,328 college students are worldwide ones. It signifies that only one.04 % of scholars in Turkey are from outsides nation. Since present information isn’t out there but, the precise factor couldn’t be mentioned, however now 2008, it’s anticipated that college students from Worldwide are barely growing in Anadolu College as a result of 1) the impression of turning into an accession nation enhances the circulation of scholars, 2) On-line diploma packages are supplied with establishments exterior Turkey.


Instruction Deliverly


Although Anadolu College actively incorporates new know-how into the Distance Schooling System, the Textbook is a core media to carry directions to college students. Anadolu has the particular groups for textbook developments that are composed by contents consultants, editors, educational designers, TV editors, artwork administrators, language consultants and measurement and analysis consultants. After the reformation of the Distance Schooling System and programs in 1999, textbooks have been additionally reformed to accord with TV and on-line packages and new groups have been organized. Now, they’ve 281 completely different textbooks for distance schooling programs which has been developed by these consultants.

TV and Radio packages

TV and Radio Applications are broadcasted respectively on TRT4 and on TRT Radio 1. These packages have been developed with assist by academic know-how and technical consultants, and now have reached to the variety of 5200 for TV and 400 for radio which have been produced.
TV packages are broadcasted 24 weeks per yr, 37 hours per week.

Surpport Service

Video Convention System

It’s used for collaborating with different organizations and for college kids’ counseling. By now, Anadolu College collaborated with Ahmet Yesevi Worldwide Turk-Kazak College, Open College in UK, CNED France, NIME in Japan, Germany (Colonge) and Istanbul (Aksaray). These video conferences are facilitated through terrestrial line and satellite tv for pc.

Educational Counseling Companies

College students are given probability to work together with different college students and instructors. They will achieve educational advises from instructors. These providers can be found in 10 international locations in evenings and weekends.

E-learning providers

College students are given the best to entry e-contents free of charge and in a position to achieve these choices –e-books, e-television, e-exam, e-drill and practices, and e-audio books.

Examination preparations service

Since 1999, taped TV and Reside TV packages have been produced and offered for college kids to organize the ultimate examinations. Every format is broadcasted for one week. College students even have probabilities to ask the query as to packages by cellphone. Calling an 800 quantity which is free is accessible as an choice.

Digital Classroom

In 2003, a digital class room for undergraduate program in English language educating has been began to create an interactive leaning surroundings.

“Information from our college”

It’s 10 minutes broadcasting packages for making the connection between college students and the college. Details about occasions on the campus, the college, programs and packages are offered. This service is applied although the educational yr and this system shall be up to date each different week.

Evaluation of Distance Schooling System in Anadolu College; from a theoretical side

It’s mentioned that from the side in fact manufacturing, the speculation “Industrialized Instructional System” by Peters (1967) properly describe the Distance Sysytem of Anadolu College. It was simply anticipated that Anadolu College, Turkey on the whole had began Distance Schooling System with restricted know-how at the moment. Even Peters claimed industrialized concept in 1967, this concept might be properly utilized in 1982, beginning yr, of Anadolu College. Infrastructures weren’t well-developed at the moment and textual content have been foremost educational supply. As well as, the purpose of multinational was bringing schooling for the growing variety of potential college students. Thus, these backgrounds have accelerated to supply the mass instruction with retaining a sure stage of high quality by educational design system. Now, technological availability permits to make use of extra refined mediums resembling Web, nevertheless textual content continues to be foremost core supplies, thus Peters’ concept continues to be utilized.

The present programs offered by Anadolu additionally apply to “Guided Didactic Dialog” by Holmberg (1995). Anadolu College clarifies “pupil’s middle, making a lot of interactivity”. It looks like to use these theories which give attention to “Interplay and communication” by resembling Moore (2005). Nevertheless 1) their interactivity is restricted as an non-obligatory service (for instance, not used as a foremost curriculum), 2) interactivity know-how are used a restricted approach (for instance, web, computer systems are used as publishing contents, teleconferencing system is used to bringing instruction for out of doors establishments). From these features, these restricted interactivities couldn’t be totally matched to the theories associated to “Interplay and communication”, moderately, their enhanced ideology “students-center” “enhancing wealthy assist providers” with outdated kind medium “textual content”, “TV”, are utilized to the speculation by Homberg, which make a lot of discourse , interactivity with contents.

(For extra particulars, go to Anadolu College-open schooling at a glance-learning surroundings[6] & see Anadolu College websites on the whole)

The Function of Distance Schooling[edit]

Anadolu College which has began the space academic providers since 1982, first began for offering an alternate probability for larger schooling. The Distance Schooling Service of Anadolu College has begun to fill the hole between growing calls for for larger schooling and the scarcity of provide. Their objective of distance schooling was to resolve academic downside in Turkey and lift academic ranges of Turkish citizen. This imaginative and prescient is handed right down to now and shall be handed sooner or later. Thus, the space schooling system of Anadolu College targets to these individuals who couldn’t proceed their educations by the normal approach.

Now, their objective of Distance schooling is increasing as going through the life-long studying society. The Council of Greater Schooling in Turkey exhibits the clear path and imaginative and prescient for larger schooling and distance schooling. It defines Distance Schooling as offering all folks with probabilities to continue to learn via the lifetime. Behind this imaginative and prescient of life-long studying society, one can see the contemplation of Turkey— for being the member nation of EU. It seems that Turkey is now making efforts to go together with EU, within the ideological stage.

For the reason that Council of Greater schooling governs the entire nationwide universities, Anadolu College, with no exception, pose their Distance Schooling System alongside this line. Anadolu College elevate the Distance Schooling because the means for offering all folks with academic chances—-for self-development, self-actualization, vocational developments all through the lifetime.

The Affect of Distance Schooling[edit]

The Affect on Schooling in Turkey[edit]

Anadolu College declares the clear visions and its roles as a better academic establishment. These visions and roles are strictly in correspondence with the imaginative and prescient declared by The Council of Greater Schooling which governs the entire nationwide universities in Turkey.

As within the earlier sections, solely 33% of youths obtain larger schooling. As well as, those that can earn a better schooling could be regionally determined. The map on the highest of this chapter plots the variety of universities alongside the area. From this plotting, one can quickly discover out that larger schooling establishments are disproportionately positioned in west a part of the nation the place are a fairly extra wealth components in Turkey. Folks dwelling in geographically deprived locations are on the whole in low social financial standing. Thus, economical causes, when offered probabilities to enrollment, they might not proceed their studying with out working for cash. Thus, with respects to offering these folks with academic probability, distance schooling system which is free from time and area constrains is strongly wanted.

Amongst programs provided by Distance Schooling System in Anadolu College, programs for instructor preparation is considerably necessary. After establishing the Fundamental Schooling Regulation (Regulation No. 4360), it’s the nationwide objective to reinforce the entry to primly schooling, updating curriculum and academics coaching. As seen within the report by the World Financial institution (2007), the disproportional availability of expert academics causes critical issues in Turkey primarily and second Schooling. Anadolu College has opened programs for the aim of instructor coaching in response to this nationwide demand. Distance Schooling System, which covers all through nations with 73 bureaus and superior know-how, offers many academics in deprived areas with alternatives to pursue larger data and abilities. Anadolu College additionally opened many programs on the previous time for Turkey Military, Polices and Lecturers in response to calls for by Ministries. Thus, Anadolu College has the numerous position of Schooling in Turkey, each for residents and the nation.

Although different universities additionally present a ways academic packages, Anadolu college is posed as the middle of Distance Schooling and is predicted to steer distance and open schooling filed. Anadolu College is just an college which has totally autonomy to implement the space schooling and collaboration with different universities. As to different universities, on the whole, the Council of Greater Schooling decides the course exchanges between two establishments. However, Anadolu College is assigned because the suppliers of any programs because the type of distance schooling and different establishments are freely to barter with Anadolu to make the most of the programs offered by Anadolu.

(For extra particulars, go to Ministry of Nationwide Schooling in Turkey[7],The Council of Greater Schooling in Turkey [8]and The World Financial institution-country report-Turkey[9])

The Affect on Distance Schooling Subject[edit]

Now, Anadolu leads the space schooling filed within the Western Europe and Center East Space as larger schooling establishment and analysis group. They publish the referee journal “TOJDE” (The Turkish On-line Journal of Distance Schooling) for the aim of enhancing the implementation of Distance Schooling amongst Center East space and communications amongst establishments within the space via the analysis. The impression on the world stage is a fairly undecided, however it’s mentioned that Anadolu College takes an initiative for Distance Schooling in Center East Space.

(For extra particulars, go to the TOJDE websites, [10]. You’ll be able to learn some articles.)

Areas of Enchancment[edit]

Completion price

In the newest figures in yr 2000, 34% of scholars earned levels in 2 years packages and 23 % in four years packages with the minimal phrases (MacWilliams, 2000). This determine exhibits a number of distance learners face the problem to go although their packages. In 2006, simply fewer than 50 % accomplished 2 years packages, whereas solely 25 % accomplished four years bachelor packages (Aydin et al, 2006 qtd by Akbulut et al, 2007). Thus, as to 2 years packages, the scenario has improved; nevertheless, nonetheless in four years bachelor packages, no enchancment might be seen. As well as, earlier drop-out price is a fairly excessive. About 45 % college students will drop out within the first 2 years (Aydin et al, 2006 qtd by Akbulut et al, 2007).

The background of this challenge is that many of the college students work as full or part-time, and time administration is a fairly troublesome. What’s extra, “the space” between different learners and instructors causes the sensation of isolation and college students progressively free their motivation. Although, Anadolu college offers 58 educational counseling facilities all through the nation (MacWilliam, 2000), it looks like not working properly. Additional helps, particularly earlier assist is required to forestall from earlier drop-out.

Since solely 8 % can entry in Web of their every day life (MacWilliam, 2000), just-in-time feedbacks or emotional helps are troublesome within the present conditions. Offering extra helps facilities or rising the extent of dwelling in residents is required.

High quality assurance

The problems about high quality assurance are raised in 2 ranges: one is the standard assurance for college kids’ studying outcomes; the opposite is the standard assurance for Anadolu College, itself.

Achievements are primarily evaluated by a number of questions (MacWilliam, 2000; Akbulut et al, 2007). The reliability of assessments is of doubt.

The standard assurance of Anadolu, itself isn’t sufficient. Given Anadolu accounts for the disproportionably excessive distance learners-99% in Turkey, Anadolu is of monopoly in Distance Schooling filed. The dearth of competitor on the whole retains the monopoly from additional improvement. There is no such thing as a customary evaluation system of upper schooling, in fact of Distance Schooling in Turkey. The standard of enrollment figures can be of downside. As a result of legally required for open acceptance, Anadolu faces problem in upgrading its customary (MacWilliam, 2000).

These points associated to high quality assurance really leads to the mistrust towards Distance levels. Anadolu don’t point out that levels have been eared by distance schooling, apparently reflecting employers’’ distastes for distance levels (MackWilliam, 2000).

Take an initiative for college improvement

Workers upgrading is likely one of the priorities Anadolu must embark on. Akbulut et al (2007) claimed from their survey for instructors, they discovered that comparatively few instructors contain in in-service coaching regardless that most of instructors have motivation to improve their directions. Aydin(2003) identified that in Turkey on the whole, there are not any custom {of professional} improvement for college educating (qtd by Akbulut et al, 2007). It’s prospected that technological development and diversification of pupil’s demography and wishes are accelerated in future in Distance Schooling. For assembly these preliminary calls for {of professional} improvement, the system {of professional} improvement needs to be developed. It seems that a school or a division is required to take an initiative as organizing instructors.

The position as a analysis establishment

As Latchem (2007) steered, in Asian Distance Schooling subject, there are lack of the tradition for analysis. Anadolu college, even publishing an authentic journal and holding symposiums, it seems that the analysis tradition isn’t properly mature. Additional improvement can be wanted as a analysis establishment.


Akbulut, Yavuz. Kuzu, Abdullah. Latchem, Colin & Odabasi, Ferhan “Change Readiness amongst educating Workers at Anadolu College, Turkey” Distance Schooling, Vol 28, No.Three November, 2007 pp335-350.

Anadolu College Websites (entry to 2007/12/24-2008/01/05)

Greater schooling council[12] “Rules on Inter-College Distance Greater Schooling Based mostly On Communication And Data Expertise”
“The Turkish Greater Schooling System (Half 2 Governance) 2003“The Turkish Greater Schooling System (Part3-Present Standing) 2003

MacWilliams, Bryon “Turkey’s Outdated-Common distance schooling Attracts the Largest pupil Physique on Earth” The Chronicle of Greater Schooling, Sep, 22, 2000

Ministry of schooling in Turkey Websites

Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G. Distance Schooling: A Programs View-2nd edition- Wadsworth Publishing.2005

Latchem, Colin. “A Framework for Researching Asian Open and Distance Studying” Distance Schooling, Vol.28, No.2, August, 2007 pp.133-147

OECD “Nation Statistical Profile 2007-Turkey” 2007 [14]

Simonson, M. Smaldino, S.E., Albright, M.J., & Zvacek, S.
“Educating and Studying at a Distance: Foundations of Distance Schooling Prentice Hal.” 2005

The World Financial institution “Turkey: Schooling Sector Examine (2006) Sustainable Pathways to an Efficient, Equitable, and Environment friendly Schooling System for Preschool via Secondary Faculty Schooling”[15]

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