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Transportation Planning Casebook/Bike Lanes in Amsterdam

Bicycling has been a distinguished a part of Dutch tradition because the flip of the 19th century, when the Dutch owned extra bicycles per capita than some other nation in Europe. This early recognition in Amsterdam and throughout the nation is undoubtedly aided by the truth that it’s a flat, compact and densely populated nation with a average 12 months spherical local weather. However simply as many western nations, the post-WWII period noticed a widespread adoption automobiles and a subsequent foray into auto-centric design. As the remainder of the industrialized world left their bikes in favor of vehicles, many Dutch didn’t—notably in Amsterdam, which had at all times been troublesome to drive in attributable to its slim streets and lots of canals. This new sharing of the roads led to a excessive variety of vehicle-pedestrian accidents and deaths. Amsterdam and the Netherlands arrived at a crossroads. In gentle of home protests and considerations over the sustainability of vehicles, the Dutch authorities started a nationwide coverage to divest from vehicles in its cities and cities and to deal with various transportation that have been much less reliant on international oil. The pendulum swung again to favor bicycles in cities. With the help of constant investments over the past 30 years in infrastructure and schooling, Amsterdam has develop into essentially the most bicycle pleasant metropolis in Europe with 881,000 bikes in a metropolis of 780,559 individuals.

Annotated Record of Actors[edit]

Fietsersbond (“Dutch Cyclists Union”): Early bicycle advocacy group that has been profitable over time in lobbying politicians and civil servants on the nationwide, provincial and native ranges for bike infrastructure and bike security insurance policies. It’s now a big group with 34,000 paying members that employs 45 employees. They publish a quarterly journal referred to as the Vogelvrije Fietser, “Free-as-a-bird Bicycle owner.” [1]

Cease de Kindermoord (“Cease the Little one Homicide”): A protest group began in 1973 in response to the excessive variety of vehicular associated deaths of youngsters within the early 1970s. Notably, this was a coalition of motorcycle advocates, environmentalists, dad and mom and faculties. The group efficiently influenced the Dutch authorities to fund and construct segregated cycle paths. In 2001 they turned a part of the bigger highway security marketing campaign, 3VO / Veilig Verkeer Nederland, or “Protected Visitors Netherlands”, that continues to marketing campaign for decrease highway deaths.[2]

PM Joop Den Uyl (“Uncle Joop”): Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 11 Could 1973 till 19 December 1977. Seen as a polarizing determine in Danish politics, he was a pressure for leftist causes and a proponent for the maakbare samenleving, or the “makeable society” below which many bike enhancements have been made.[3]

Timeline of Occasions[edit]

1906: The Motor and Bicycle Act gives laws for site visitors guidelines and for bicyclists. Bicycles wanted to be geared up with a “correctly functioning steering mechanism”, a bell,at the very least one correctly working brake and, when used after darkish and a lantern.[4]

1919: Dutch Street Congress Affiliation begins lobbying for higher roads [4]

1923: Bicycle customers and pedestrians are first allowed to make use of one meter of shoulder on nation roads.

1932: The Dutch Street Plan was the primary systematic try at highway development within the nation.[4]

1940-1945: German occupation the Netherlands. In Amsterdam, 60% of the transportation infrastructure is destroyed throughout fight.[5]

1944-1948: US gives $1 billion in worldwide support Netherlands as a part of the Marshall Plan as a way to rebuild from heavy harm incurred through the struggle.[5]

1950-1973: Dutch financial system is rebuilt and grows 5% yearly for almost twenty years largely attributable to a resurgence in manufacturing and commerce agreements in Europe. Common earnings of Dutch citizen will increase 222% and the common distance pushed a day will increase from 4 km to 23 km. Biking charges decreases 6% annually in that interval.[5]

1958: Amsterdam’s inhabitants peaks at 875,000, then started declining attributable to suburbanization.[4]

1972: Bicycle deaths peak at 3,300, sparking public outrage. Cease the Little one Homicide coalition, named from the headline of an article written by a journalist whose baby had been killed by a automobile, protests for safer streets.[6]

1973: Labor Occasion candidate Joop Den Uyl wins election within the wake of oil crises, implements car-free Sundays as a way to ration oil.

1974: First metropolis facilities made automobile free.[6]

1975: Dutch nationwide authorities begins financing devoted biking route, separated from motor automobiles. Prototypes within the cities of Hague and Tilburg have been massively profitable. Between financial forces and design, each cities see biking charges improve by over 50%. The fashionable Dutch Cyclists’ Union is based as a nationwide advocacy group solely for bike infrastructure and bike security.[4]

1976 to 1983: Bicycle use throughout the Netherlands will increase by 35% [7]

1978: Amsterdam’s site visitors circulation plan provides precedence to separated cycle tracks rather than wider roads for motor automobiles.

1980 to 2005: Speedy development of separated bicycle paths. Biking associated accidents and deaths in Amsterdam fall 40% and 60%, regardless of the space cycled per inhabitant growing from 1.7 km to 2.5 km. Safer biking encourages extra biking and extra biking encourages larger security.

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2003: A public bike-share system stationed at practice stations, OV-Bicycle, begins and sees 100,000 rides within the first 12 months.[8]

2006: Amsterdam begins implementing annual bike owner satisfaction survey that’s utilized to metropolis planning.[7]

2011: 90% of Amsterdam roads are thought of “bike pleasant” by municipal authorities.

2014: OV-Bicycle rides exceed 1.5 million journeys per 12 months.[8]

Maps of Areas[edit]

Amsterdam is a small metropolis, compact and flat, solely 85 sq. miles in land space, roughly the dimensions of San Francisco with out hills.

[9] Amsterdam Different Prime Bicycling Cities
Inhabitants 750,000 1,131,000
Inhabitants Density 4,581 per km2 3,885 per km2
Automotive free households 63% 36%
College college students 11% 8%
Annual Common Precipitation 78 cm 71 cm
Days under zero Celsius 64 71
Days above 32 Celsius 0 15

Coverage Points and Implementation[edit]

Amsterdam’s pre-industrial highway infrastructure was not constructed for vehicles. City-renewal fashion clearance to make room for infrastructure was extra political troublesome than in comparatively much less dense cities.

The vitality/financial disaster captured nationwide authorities’s consideration.

A coalition of environmentalists and anxious dad and mom mixed forces to marketing campaign towards auto-fatalities after an uncommon variety of accidents involving youngsters.

The Netherland’s high-tax, high-service mannequin has enabled devoted and sustained funding in biking infrastructure.

Lengthy-term Bicycle Plan 2012-2016[edit]

In 2011, the Metropolis of Amsterdam launched a long-term complete plan for his or her bicycle infrastructure. The plan names three main issues to sort out over the following 4 years. The main issues are a scarcity of bicycle parking on the Central and Amstel Stations, slim bike lanes on busy routes, and a scarcity of bicycle infrastructure development. The Metropolis of Amsterdam guarantees to speculate €120 million ($131 million) in bicycle infrastructure by 2020. By 2040, Amsterdam plans to make the funding a complete of €200 million ($219 million).[10]

By 2016, the Metropolis plans so as to add at the very least 12,000 new bicycle parking areas. One other 58,000 parking areas can be added to Amsterdam’s community between 2016 and 2020. A majority of the additions can be made on the Central station (16,000 by 2020) and the Zuid station (11,000 by 2020). Underneath this plan, cyclists will be capable to park their bike as much as 14 days (beforehand 7). Massive parking amenities will even be ran with a bicycle monitor to trace how lengthy bikes keep with out motion. Any deserted bike is eliminated and donated.[10]

Plan Amsterdam Journal: Biking Coverage and Design[edit]

The Metropolis of Amsterdam publishes journal in regards to the present tasks, developments, and bodily planning within the metropolis correct in addition to the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area. Plan Amsterdam releases seven points per 12 months. Two of the problems per 12 months are in English whereas the remaining are written in Dutch. Launched in July 2014, the Biking Coverage and Design difficulty depicts the previous, present, and future state of bicycling within the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area. The problem goes over the previous historical past of biking tradition, upcoming tasks and designs, a future forecast of biking wants, and a glance on biker conduct in Amsterdam.[11]

Bike Infrastructure[edit]

Bike Lanes[edit]

Bike lanes are considerable all through Amsterdam. These lanes usually are available two fashions: protected and unprotected. Protected bike lanes contain a separation between the bicycle and automobiles shifting the identical path. The separation could be a concrete median, a row of avenue parking, plastic poles, or perhaps a row of timber and planters. Unprotected bike lanes transfer alongside site visitors with completely different paint or coloration of highway differentiating the 2 modes of transportation.

A two method fietsstraat separated by a shallow brick median.

Fietsstraat[edit]

In any other case referred to as a motorbike avenue, fietsstraat are a highway by which the bikes have the first proper of method whereas any car should yield. The width of motorcycle streets are usually round 12 toes huge to accommodate private automobiles. Bike streets are usually present in residential areas the place site visitors stays low. The fietsstraat are additionally very important to the bigger bicycle highway community since they join the native roads to bicycle highways in addition to bypass roads which can be too busy for riders.

Fietssnelwegen[edit]

Often known as snelfietsroutes, signify hyperlinks of bicycle roadway made solely for lengthy distance journey or leisure biking. These differ from fietsstraat as vehicles aren’t allowed to share the roadway. Moreover, there are not any site visitors lights, no intersections with automobiles, and no lengths of poor pavement alongside the bicycle highways. The Amsterdam metropolitan area at present has fietssnelwegen connecting to Utrecht to the southeast, Haarlem to the west, and Zaandam to the North. In development or different deliberate highways hook up with Pumerend, Almere, and Hoofddorp.[12]

Bike Parking[edit]

Since there are extra bicycles than people in Amsterdam, there are a number of methods to securely park one’s bike. Bike racks are considerable in addition to a authorized obligation from companies to supply. As the recognition of biking will increase, the variety of accessible areas additionally decreases. This is the reason engineers are creating extra options for creating extra bicycle parking area. Proposed options embody floating mini-barges positioned within the canals which maintain 150 bikes a chunk. One other resolution proposed was to construct a further underground bike parking facility.

Bridges[edit]

Amsterdam, being a canal metropolis,is affected by over 1200 bridges spanning the water under.[13] As previous bridges are retouched and new bridges erected, devoted bicycle service is anticipated. A rising neighborhood, Ijburg, has seen two new bridges constructed since its groundbreaking. The Nescio bridge doesn’t enable automobiles. The Nescio bridge separates pedestrians and bicyclists into completely different paths as seen within the photograph. The separation of slower modes of transportation is a rising pattern seen in Amsterdam’s bicycle infrastructure. The Enneüs Heerma bridge connects the Schellingwoude neighborhood and the A10 freeway with the IJburg neighborhood. The Enneüs Heerma bridge gives room for pedestrians, bicycles, automobiles and a public tram line all with protected separation.

Intersections[edit]

Since a big share of Amsterdammer commute by bicycle, security alongside automobiles is of utmost significance. As designed within the PLANAmsterdam 2014, the Metropolis is introducing an intersection design referred to as PlusNet. The design permits nearly full separation of bicycles from vehicles at massive, multi-lane intersections. Any bikes crossing the intersection achieve this in pedestrian-like avenues perpendicular to site visitors. All proper turns could be made with out stopping in any respect.[11]

Rental Bikes[edit]

Amsterdam makes use of a shared bicycle system referred to as OV-Fiets. OV-Fiets, initially an impartial firm, has been run by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS) in any other case referred to as the Dutch Rail since 2008. The NS launched the OV-Fiets system in 2003. There have been 70 bike stations in 2004, and the system has grown to over 250 stations in 2014.[14] One can lease a shared bicycle in varied methods. The bikes could be discovered at staffed stations, self-serve stations (very like NiceRides within the Twin Cities), bike safes, bike carousels, bike lockers, bike dispenser, or at any of the OV-Fiet pop-up shops.[15] The pop-up shops are usually set simply exterior of the Amsterdam Central, Amsterdam Zuid, and The Hague Central Rail stations in September and October. The pop-up shops are used to alleviate congestion of commuters and vacationers within the busy months. Further pop-up shops are used all through the metropolitan space throughout massive occasions reminiscent of massive soccer matches.[15] The huge availability of the bikes has made this system a hit with 180,000 subscribers and over 1.5 million rides in 2014.[14] To take part in this system, subscribers pay a small €10 ($11) per 12 months. After that, the bikes could be rented for €3,15 an hour ($3.45).[16]

In 2013, the principle central rail stations of the Amsterdam metro space had bike parking points. People who used the bike share system couldn’t discover a spot to park their bike earlier than taking their practice residence. This was because of the mass quantities of riders flocking to the identical main rail stations as they commute out of town. In response to the parking difficulty, OV-Fiets launched a pilot program referred to as OV-Fiets@residence. The pilot program allowed subscribers to take the bike residence and use it once more on the commute to work. This allowed extra parking areas at lots of the rail stations throughout the community. Customers may choose into this system for €15 ($16.50) a month. This system was examined at The Hague Central and Utrecht Central stations, two of the highest 5 busiest stations. The pilot program was not examined in Amsterdam Central station as a way to discover any faults with out having them happen at by far the busiest station within the metro. This system was thought of a hit. However, the pricing scheme was modified so {that a} separate subscription was not wanted. As an alternative, the size of time a motorbike could possibly be rented was prolonged to 72 hours for all customers.[16][17]

Narrative of the Case[edit]

Immediately, Amsterdam is maybe some of the bicycle pleasant cities inside the Netherlands, if not the world. In Amsterdam, over 60% of journeys are made by bike within the internal metropolis. Notably, Amsterdam is known for its almost 500 miles of motorcycle lanes throughout town. The recognition of biking in Amsterdam and the Netherlands as a complete is aided by the flat, compact and densely populated terrain and the local weather principally average. The primary velocipede, or bike, was launched within the Netherlands round 1870 and have been first used as a software for the wealthy, as costs have been too excessive for the common laborer. The bicycle continued to be a real luxurious merchandise within the Netherlands till the flip of the century when bike possession disseminated to the broader society. Over this time, bikes have been usually met with hostility, notably in rural Netherlands. The aggressive conduct of non-cyclists prompted the elite bikers to type biking golf equipment, forming the primary in 1883. Underneath stress from these golf equipment, in addition to elevated motorist site visitors, the nationwide authorities applied a car tax to finance normal roads, a few of which went to bike infrastructure. From the 1920s onwards, bicycle use elevated quickly and was the preferred mode of transport within the nation, with 2 bicycles for each citizen. Within the 1930s, the overall Dutch bicycle trade produced round 400,000 bicycles per 12 months.The results of cheaper, extra accessible bikes and vehicles led to a sixfold improve in site visitors quantity in Amsterdam between elevated sixfold between 1916 and 1938. Following the struggle, the variety of inhabitants within the Netherlands rose from 10.Zero million in 1950 to 13.6 million in 1975. Girls started to work, skilled jobs doubled and growth throughout the Netherlands began to suburbanize. In 1940, the utmost journey distance within the metropolis was seven km, however by 1970 this was 15 km. As productiveness elevated, disposable earnings tripled and the Dutch started shopping for vehicles. The variety of passenger vehicles rose from 139,000 in 1950 to three.Four million in 1975. The town of Amsterdam, together with the remainder of the Netherlands, started changing early bicycle infrastructure with widened roads for motorists. As in lots of nations in Europe, roads turned more and more congested and the competitors for highway area turned a security hazard for cyclists. Round this time, Amsterdam started experimenting with one-way site visitors, parking charges, and woonerfs—small residential areas that have been pedestrian solely, nonetheless these efforts weren’t sufficient. The fast bounce in drivers brought about a pointy rise in bike owner deaths, peaking in 1971 with 3,300 deaths by the hands of motor automobiles. To the outrage of the nation, 450 of these pedestrian deaths have been youngsters below the age of 14. In response, a social motion referred to as Cease de Kindermoord, or Cease the Little one Homicide, was fashioned as a way to advocate for safer biking situations. Bicycling gained a political dimension after the oil criss within the Netherlands, the results of a boycott of Arabic oil-producing nations. Resistance to conceding completely to the calls for of the automobile quickly gained floor. Automotive site visitors regulation and the promotion of public transport turned matters of dialogue on the Nationwide stage. In 1975, the Dutch Cyclists’ Union was established out of defunct golf equipment to focus solely on lobbying for bicycle pursuits. These pressures helped to steer the Dutch authorities below Joop den Uyl to shift its focus from accommodating vehicles to constructing out its now intensive community of paths and bike infrastructure, beginning with a 1978 bike plan that listed constructing a motorbike route community as a high precedence. These lanes, constructed up largely because the 1980s, are clearly marked with separate indicators and lights for cyclists and are huge sufficient to permit side-by-side biking and overtaking. Immediately, biking has develop into normalized across the total nation and is devoid of a lot of the stigma pervasive round the remainder of the world.

Full References[edit]

  1. Fietsersbond.be,. ‘Fietsersbond: The Acutely aware Alternative For The Bike (2015)
  2. Vvn.nl,. ‘Veilig Verkeer Nederland | Iedereen Veilig Over Straat!’ (2015)
  3. Historisch Nieuwsblad,. ‘De Spanning Tussen Den Uyl En De Ondernemers’ (2008)
  4. abcde Fietsberaad,. ‘Dutch Bicycle Grasp Plan’ (1999)
  5. abc Anderson, Michael. ‘The Dutch Economic system: A Historical past Of The Dutch Economic system Since WWII’ (2010)
  6. ab Iamsterdam.com,. ‘Amsterdam’s Biking Historical past | I Amsterdam (2014)
  7. ab Fietberaad,. ‘The Bicycle Capitals Of The World: Amsterdam And Copenhagen’ (2010)
  8. ab Bicycle Dutch,. ‘Bike Share The Dutch Method’ (2011)
  9. Metropolis Biking. MIT Press (2012)
  10. ab Metropolis of Amsterdam. “Lengthy-Time period Bicycle Plan 2012-2016.” (2012): n. pag. Gameente Amsterdam. Gameente Amsterdam, 2012. Net. Three Nov. 2015. .
  11. ab Metropolis of Amsterdam. Plan Amsterdam: Biking Coverage and Design. Gemeente Amsterdam. Metropolis of Amsterdam, June 2014. Net. Three Nov. 2015. .
  12. The Free Faculty. “Fietssnelwegen.” Sustainable Growth. Trans. Google Translate. The Free Faculty in The Hague, 9 Nov. 2011. Net. Three Nov. 2015. .
  13. http://www.iamsterdam.com/en/visiting/what-to-do/structure/bridges-of-amsterdam.
  14. ab Nederlandse Spoorwegen. “Grafeiken.” Grafieken. Nederlandse Spoorwegen, 2015. Net. 03 Nov. 2015. .
  15. ab Nederlandse Spoorwegen. “Verschillende Huurlocaties.” Verschillende Huurlocaties. Nederlandse Spoorwegen, 2015. Net. 03 Nov. 2015.
  16. ab Nederlandse Spoorwegen. “Veelgestelde Vragen.” OV-Fiets. Nederlandse Spoorwegen, 2015. Net. 03 Nov. 2015.
  17. OV-Fiets. “OV-fiets.” Wikipedia. Trans. Google Translate. OV-Fiets, 2015. Net. 03 Nov. 2015. .

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